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J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7(11), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7110379

Association of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease with Risk of Endometriosis: A Nationwide Cohort Study Involving 141,460 Individuals

1
School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
3
School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
4
Management Office for Health Data, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
5
Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics & Gynecology)
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Abstract

Endometriosis occurs when endometrial tissue exists outside the uterine cavity. The presence of ectopic endometrial tissue and resultant inflammation cause serious symptoms, including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and infertility. Pelvic inflammatory disease is caused by the ascension of pathogenic bacteria from the vagina to the uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The factors involved in the pathogenesis of the two conditions are not clearly understood, but recent studies have suggested that disturbances of the female reproductive tract microbiota and inflammatory processes influence the development of both diseases. Using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), we conducted a study to assess the association of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with endometriosis. An age-matched control group including patients without PID was selected. Patients with a pre-existing diagnosis of endometriosis were excluded. This nationwide retrospective cohort study, involving a total of 141,460 patients, demonstrated that patients with PID had a three-fold increase in the risk of developing endometriosis (HR = 3.02, 95% CI = 2.85–3.2). View Full-Text
Keywords: pelvic inflammatory disease; endometriosis; inflammation; reproductive tract microbiota; upper genital tract infection pelvic inflammatory disease; endometriosis; inflammation; reproductive tract microbiota; upper genital tract infection
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Tai, F.-W.; Chang, C.Y.-Y.; Chiang, J.-H.; Lin, W.-C.; Wan, L. Association of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease with Risk of Endometriosis: A Nationwide Cohort Study Involving 141,460 Individuals. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 379.

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