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Open AccessReview

Heart Failure: Diagnosis, Management and Utilization

1
John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601, USA
2
Ansicht Scidel Inc., Edison, NJ 08837, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Salvatore De Rosa
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(7), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm5070062
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 28 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
Despite the advancement in medicine, management of heart failure (HF), which usually presents as a disease syndrome, has been a challenge to healthcare providers. This is reflected by the relatively higher rate of readmissions along with increased mortality and morbidity associated with HF. In this review article, we first provide a general overview of types of HF pathogenesis and diagnostic features of HF including the crucial role of exercise in determining the severity of heart failure, the efficacy of therapeutic strategies and the morbidity/mortality of HF. We then discuss the quality control measures to prevent the growing readmission rates for HF. We also attempt to elucidate published and ongoing clinical trials for HF in an effort to evaluate the standard and novel therapeutic approaches, including stem cell and gene therapies, to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Finally, we discuss the appropriate utilization/documentation and medical coding based on the severity of the HF alone and with minor and major co-morbidities. We consider that this review provides an extensive overview of the HF in terms of disease pathophysiology, management and documentation for the general readers, as well as for the clinicians/physicians/hospitalists. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarker; heart failure; ICD 10; readmission; utilization biomarker; heart failure; ICD 10; readmission; utilization
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Inamdar, A.A.; Inamdar, A.C. Heart Failure: Diagnosis, Management and Utilization. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 62.

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