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Role of EMT in Metastasis and Therapy Resistance
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Protein Kinase D Enzymes as Regulators of EMT and Cancer Cell Invasion

Department of Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Road, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Harris
J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(2), 20;
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 18 January 2016 / Published: 3 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition)
The Protein Kinase D (PKD) isoforms PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3 are effectors of the novel Protein Kinase Cs (nPKCs) and diacylglycerol (DAG). PKDs impact diverse biological processes like protein transport, cell migration, proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis. PKDs however, have distinct effects on these functions. While PKD1 blocks EMT and cell migration, PKD2 and PKD3 tend to drive both processes. Given the importance of EMT and cell migration to the initiation and progression of various malignancies, abnormal expression of PKDs has been reported in multiple types of cancers, including breast, pancreatic and prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss how EMT and cell migration are regulated by PKD isoforms and the significance of this regulation in the context of cancer development. View Full-Text
Keywords: Protein Kinase D; PKD; EMT; migration; cancer Protein Kinase D; PKD; EMT; migration; cancer
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Durand, N.; Borges, S.; Storz, P. Protein Kinase D Enzymes as Regulators of EMT and Cancer Cell Invasion. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 20.

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