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Article

Increased Markers of Oxidative Stress and Positive Correlation Low-Grade Inflammation with Positive Symptoms in the First Episode of Schizophrenia in Drug-Naïve Patients

1
Department of Food and Nutrition, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Early Intervention, Medical University of Lublin, 20-439 Lublin, Poland
3
Chair and Department of Organic Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
4
Department of Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
5
Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
6
Department of Surgical Oncology, St. John’s Cancer Center, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nuri B. Farber and Alessandro Di Minno
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(9), 2551; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092551
Received: 25 March 2022 / Revised: 21 April 2022 / Accepted: 30 April 2022 / Published: 2 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic mental illness usually diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress causes membrane dysfunction and cell damage, which is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The purpose of our study was to evaluate oxidative stress markers (the main primary products of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), and end products of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP)) in the plasma of patients with the first episode of schizophrenia in drug-naïve patients (22 men and 12 women aged 17–29). The control group (Ctrl) comprised 26 healthy subjects (19 men and 7 women, aged 18–30 years). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was applied to evaluate psychotic symptoms. Analyses of the oxidative stress variables revealed an increased level of SOD (U/mL) in subjects with schizophrenia versus control group. In addition, lipid damage measured as LOOHs µ (mol/L) and MDA was significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia in comparison to control subjects. There was a positive correlation between MDA µmol/L and PANSS P and a positive correlation between C-reactive protein (CRP) and the PANSS P scale. The elevated level of superoxide dismutase in patients with the first episode of schizophrenia can be explained by compensatory mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde can be used as a simple biomarker of low-grade systemic inflammation associated with oxidative stress. A positive correlation between CRP and PANSS P scale and MDA and PANSS P scale may indicate a significant relationship between the development of low-grade inflammation and damage associated with oxidative stress in the development of the first symptoms of schizophrenia. View Full-Text
Keywords: schizophrenia; oxidative stress; low-grade inflammation schizophrenia; oxidative stress; low-grade inflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dudzińska, E.; Szymona, K.; Bogucki, J.; Koch, W.; Cholewińska, E.; Sitarz, R.; Ognik, K. Increased Markers of Oxidative Stress and Positive Correlation Low-Grade Inflammation with Positive Symptoms in the First Episode of Schizophrenia in Drug-Naïve Patients. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 2551. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092551

AMA Style

Dudzińska E, Szymona K, Bogucki J, Koch W, Cholewińska E, Sitarz R, Ognik K. Increased Markers of Oxidative Stress and Positive Correlation Low-Grade Inflammation with Positive Symptoms in the First Episode of Schizophrenia in Drug-Naïve Patients. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(9):2551. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092551

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dudzińska, Ewa, Kinga Szymona, Jacek Bogucki, Wojciech Koch, Ewelina Cholewińska, Robert Sitarz, and Katarzyna Ognik. 2022. "Increased Markers of Oxidative Stress and Positive Correlation Low-Grade Inflammation with Positive Symptoms in the First Episode of Schizophrenia in Drug-Naïve Patients" Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 9: 2551. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11092551

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