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Review

The Role of Inflammation in Tinnitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
3
Research School of Behavioral and Cognitive Neurosciences (BCN), University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefan Evers
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041000
Received: 23 December 2021 / Revised: 10 February 2022 / Accepted: 12 February 2022 / Published: 14 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intracranial Neuromodulation: Opportunities and Challenges)
Subjective tinnitus is the perception of sound without the presence of an external source. Increasing evidence suggests that tinnitus is associated with inflammation. In this systematic review, the role of inflammation in subjective tinnitus was studied. Nine animal and twenty human studies reporting inflammatory markers in both humans and animals with tinnitus were included. It was established that TNF-α and IL-1β are increased in tinnitus, and that microglia and astrocytes are activated as well. Moreover, platelet activation may also play a role in tinnitus. In addition, we elaborate on mechanisms of inflammation in tinnitus, and discuss potential treatment options targeting inflammatory pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: tinnitus; inflammation; microglia; astrocytes; cytokines; platelets tinnitus; inflammation; microglia; astrocytes; cytokines; platelets
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mennink, L.M.; Aalbers, M.W.; van Dijk, P.; van Dijk, J.M.C. The Role of Inflammation in Tinnitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041000

AMA Style

Mennink LM, Aalbers MW, van Dijk P, van Dijk JMC. The Role of Inflammation in Tinnitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(4):1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041000

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mennink, Lilian M., Marlien W. Aalbers, Pim van Dijk, and J. M.C. van Dijk. 2022. "The Role of Inflammation in Tinnitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 4: 1000. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041000

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