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Article

Lower Levels of ABO Anti-A and Anti-B of IgM, IgG and IgA Isotypes in the Serum but Not the Saliva of COVID-19 Convalescents

1
Department of Blood Group Serology and Transfusion Medicine, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria
2
Department of Blood Group Serology and Transfusion Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
3
Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria
4
Diagnostic & Research Institute of Hygiene, Microbiology and Environmental Medicine, Diagnostic and Research Center for Molecular Biomedicine, Medical University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vito Racanelli
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(15), 4513; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11154513
Received: 30 June 2022 / Revised: 25 July 2022 / Accepted: 1 August 2022 / Published: 2 August 2022
Individuals with ABO type O, naturally possessing anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their serum, are underrepresented among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared with healthy controls. The ABO antibodies might play a role in the viral transmission. Therefore, we aimed to quantify anti-A/anti-B, including their subclasses IgM, IgG and IgA, in the serum and saliva of Caucasians (n = 187) after mild COVID-19 to compare them with individuals who had never been infected with SARS-CoV-2. Two samples were collected within two months after the diagnosis (median days: 44) and two months later. ABO antibodies were determined by flow cytometry. Additionally, total IgA in saliva and antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 were tested by ELISA. COVID-19 convalescents had significantly lower levels of anti-A/anti-B IgM, IgG and IgA in their serum than control subjects (p < 0.001). Interestingly, no significant differences were observed in saliva. ABO antibody levels remained stable over the period considered. No relation of ABO to the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies was observed. Total IgA was lower in convalescents than in controls (p = 0.038). Whereas ABO antibodies in the saliva may not contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19, individual pre-existing high serum concentrations of anti-A/anti-B may have a protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; ABO blood group; ABO antibodies; immune system; immunoglobulin A; saliva SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; ABO blood group; ABO antibodies; immune system; immunoglobulin A; saliva
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MDPI and ACS Style

Matzhold, E.M.; Körmöczi, G.F.; Banfi, C.; Schönbacher, M.; Drexler-Helmberg, C.; Steinmetz, I.; Berghold, A.; Schlenke, P.; Wagner, G.E.; Stoisser, A.; Kleinhappl, B.; Mayr, W.R.; Wagner, T. Lower Levels of ABO Anti-A and Anti-B of IgM, IgG and IgA Isotypes in the Serum but Not the Saliva of COVID-19 Convalescents. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 4513. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11154513

AMA Style

Matzhold EM, Körmöczi GF, Banfi C, Schönbacher M, Drexler-Helmberg C, Steinmetz I, Berghold A, Schlenke P, Wagner GE, Stoisser A, Kleinhappl B, Mayr WR, Wagner T. Lower Levels of ABO Anti-A and Anti-B of IgM, IgG and IgA Isotypes in the Serum but Not the Saliva of COVID-19 Convalescents. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(15):4513. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11154513

Chicago/Turabian Style

Matzhold, Eva M., Günther F. Körmöczi, Chiara Banfi, Marlies Schönbacher, Camilla Drexler-Helmberg, Ivo Steinmetz, Andrea Berghold, Peter Schlenke, Gabriel E. Wagner, Anja Stoisser, Barbara Kleinhappl, Wolfgang R. Mayr, and Thomas Wagner. 2022. "Lower Levels of ABO Anti-A and Anti-B of IgM, IgG and IgA Isotypes in the Serum but Not the Saliva of COVID-19 Convalescents" Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 15: 4513. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11154513

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