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Review

The Patho-Neurophysiological Basis and Treatment of Focal Laryngeal Dystonia: A Narrative Review and Two Case Reports Applying TMS over the Laryngeal Motor Cortex

1
Laboratory for Human and Experimental Neurophysiology, Department of Neuroscience, University of Split School of Medicine, 21000 Split, Croatia
2
Department of Medical Biology, University of Split School of Medicine, 21000 Split, Croatia
3
Department of Pharmacy, University of Split School of Medicine, 21000 Split, Croatia
4
Department of Neurology, University Hospital Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
5
Signal Processing, Analysis, and Advanced Diagnostics Research and Education Laboratory (SPAADREL), Faculty of Maritime Studies, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
6
Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
7
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
8
Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Split School of Medicine, 21000 Split, Croatia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lazzaro di Biase
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(12), 3453; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11123453
Received: 24 May 2022 / Revised: 10 June 2022 / Accepted: 14 June 2022 / Published: 15 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Management of Movement Disorders)
Focal laryngeal dystonia (LD) is a rare, idiopathic disease affecting the laryngeal musculature with an unknown cause and clinically presented as adductor LD or rarely as abductor LD. The most effective treatment options include the injection of botulinum toxin (BoNT) into the affected laryngeal muscle. The aim of this narrative review is to summarize the patho-neuro-physiological and genetic background of LD, as well as the standard recommended therapy (BoNT) and pharmacological treatment options, and to discuss possible treatment perspectives using neuro-modulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and vibrotactile stimulation. The review will present two LD cases, patients with adductor and abductor LD, standard diagnostic procedure, treatments and achievement, and the results of cortical excitability mapping the primary motor cortex for the representation of the laryngeal muscles in the assessment of corticospinal and corticobulbar excitability. View Full-Text
Keywords: spasmodic dysphonia; laryngeal dystonia; dystonia; focal dystonia; focal laryngeal dystonia spasmodic dysphonia; laryngeal dystonia; dystonia; focal dystonia; focal laryngeal dystonia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rogić Vidaković, M.; Gunjača, I.; Bukić, J.; Košta, V.; Šoda, J.; Konstantinović, I.; Bošković, B.; Bilić, I.; Režić Mužinić, N. The Patho-Neurophysiological Basis and Treatment of Focal Laryngeal Dystonia: A Narrative Review and Two Case Reports Applying TMS over the Laryngeal Motor Cortex. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 3453. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11123453

AMA Style

Rogić Vidaković M, Gunjača I, Bukić J, Košta V, Šoda J, Konstantinović I, Bošković B, Bilić I, Režić Mužinić N. The Patho-Neurophysiological Basis and Treatment of Focal Laryngeal Dystonia: A Narrative Review and Two Case Reports Applying TMS over the Laryngeal Motor Cortex. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(12):3453. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11123453

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rogić Vidaković, Maja, Ivana Gunjača, Josipa Bukić, Vana Košta, Joško Šoda, Ivan Konstantinović, Braco Bošković, Irena Bilić, and Nikolina Režić Mužinić. 2022. "The Patho-Neurophysiological Basis and Treatment of Focal Laryngeal Dystonia: A Narrative Review and Two Case Reports Applying TMS over the Laryngeal Motor Cortex" Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 12: 3453. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11123453

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