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Inhaled Anesthetics: Environmental Role, Occupational Risk, and Clinical Use

1
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Maria Middelares Hospital, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
Department of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Won Ho Kim and Bernard Allaouchiche
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(6), 1306; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061306
Received: 21 January 2021 / Revised: 14 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 March 2021 / Published: 22 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Approaches in Intravenous Anesthesia and Anesthetics)
Inhaled anesthetics have been in clinical use for over 150 years and are still commonly used in daily practice. The initial view of inhaled anesthetics as indispensable for general anesthesia has evolved during the years and, currently, its general use has even been questioned. Beyond the traditional risks inherent to any drug in use, inhaled anesthetics are exceptionally strong greenhouse gases (GHG) and may pose considerable occupational risks. This emphasizes the importance of evaluating and considering its use in clinical practices. Despite the overwhelming scientific evidence of worsening climate changes, control measures are very slowly implemented. Therefore, it is the responsibility of all society sectors, including the health sector to maximally decrease GHG emissions where possible. Within the field of anesthesia, the potential to reduce GHG emissions can be briefly summarized as follows: Stop or avoid the use of nitrous oxide (N2O) and desflurane, consider the use of total intravenous or local-regional anesthesia, invest in the development of new technologies to minimize volatile anesthetics consumption, scavenging systems, and destruction of waste gas. The improved and sustained awareness of the medical community regarding the climate impact of inhaled anesthetics is mandatory to bring change in the current practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: inhaled anesthetics; environment; climate change; occupational health; patient risk inhaled anesthetics; environment; climate change; occupational health; patient risk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gaya da Costa, M.; Kalmar, A.F.; Struys, M.M.R.F. Inhaled Anesthetics: Environmental Role, Occupational Risk, and Clinical Use. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 1306. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061306

AMA Style

Gaya da Costa M, Kalmar AF, Struys MMRF. Inhaled Anesthetics: Environmental Role, Occupational Risk, and Clinical Use. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(6):1306. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061306

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gaya da Costa, Mariana, Alain F. Kalmar, and Michel M.R.F. Struys 2021. "Inhaled Anesthetics: Environmental Role, Occupational Risk, and Clinical Use" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 6: 1306. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061306

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