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Article

Active Travel and Mild Cognitive Impairment among Older Adults from Low- and Middle-Income Countries

1
The Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK
2
Geriatric Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy
3
Vision and Eye Research Institute, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK
4
Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Cancer Care Alberta, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB T2S 3C3, Canada
5
Italian Agency for Development Cooperation, 33 Street, Amarat, Khartoum 79371, Sudan
6
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK
7
Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, C/Dr.Antoni Pujadas 42, Sant Boi de Llobregat, 08830 Barcelona, Spain
8
Faculty of Medicine, University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 78180 Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France
9
Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei-ro 50, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea
10
Institute of Mental Health Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Ulster University, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, UK
11
Centre for Health Science, Department of Nursing and Midwifery, University of the Highlands and Islands, Inverness IV2 3JH, UK
12
Suzanne Dworak Peck School of Social Work, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90007, USA
13
ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Hiroyuki Shimada
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(6), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061243
Received: 18 February 2021 / Revised: 12 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
Active travel may be an easily achievable form of physical activity for older people especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), but there are currently no studies on how this form of physical activity is associated with a preclinical state of dementia known as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between active travel and MCI among adults aged ≥50 years from six LMICs. Cross-sectional, community-based data from the World Health Organization’s Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed. The definition of MCI was based on the National Institute on Ageing-Alzheimer’s Association criteria. Active travel (minutes/week) was assessed with questions of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) and presented in tertiles. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between active travel and MCI. Data on 32715 people aged ≥50 years (mean age 62.4 years; 52.1% females) were analyzed. Compared to the highest tertile of active travel, the lowest tertile was associated with 1.33 (95%CI = 1.14–1.54) times higher odds for MCI overall. This association was particularly pronounced among those aged ≥65 years (OR = 1.70; 95%CI = 1.32–2.19) but active travel was not associated with MCI among those aged 50–64 years. In conclusion, low levels of active travel were associated with a significantly higher odds of MCI in adults aged ≥65 years in LMICs. Promoting active travel among people of this age group in LMICs via tailored interventions and/or country-wide infrastructure investment to provide a safe environment for active travel may lead to a reduction in MCI and subsequent dementia. View Full-Text
Keywords: active travel; older adults; low- and middle-income countries; mild cognitive impairment active travel; older adults; low- and middle-income countries; mild cognitive impairment
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Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Smith, L.; Veronese, N.; López-Sánchez, G.F.; Yang, L.; Pizzol, D.; Butler, L.T.; Barnett, Y.; Felez-Nobrega, M.; Jacob, L.; Shin, J.I.; Tully, M.A.; Gorely, T.; Oh, H.; Koyanagi, A. Active Travel and Mild Cognitive Impairment among Older Adults from Low- and Middle-Income Countries. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 1243. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061243

AMA Style

Smith L, Veronese N, López-Sánchez GF, Yang L, Pizzol D, Butler LT, Barnett Y, Felez-Nobrega M, Jacob L, Shin JI, Tully MA, Gorely T, Oh H, Koyanagi A. Active Travel and Mild Cognitive Impairment among Older Adults from Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(6):1243. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061243

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smith, Lee, Nicola Veronese, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez, Lin Yang, Damiano Pizzol, Laurie T. Butler, Yvonne Barnett, Mireia Felez-Nobrega, Louis Jacob, Jae I. Shin, Mark A. Tully, Trish Gorely, Hans Oh, and Ai Koyanagi. 2021. "Active Travel and Mild Cognitive Impairment among Older Adults from Low- and Middle-Income Countries" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 6: 1243. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061243

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