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Article

Incisor Occlusion Affects Profile Shape Variation in Middle-Aged Adults

1
Department of Pediatric Oral Health and Orthodontics, UZB-University Center for Dental Medicine, University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 40, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland
2
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
3
Oral Development and Orthodontics, Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, Medical Faculty, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
4
Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Oulu University Hospital, Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
5
Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GR-11527 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Letizia Perillo
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040800
Received: 30 January 2021 / Revised: 10 February 2021 / Accepted: 11 February 2021 / Published: 17 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Approaches and Technologies in Orthodontics)
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of overjet and overbite on profile shape in middle–aged individuals. Methods: The study population comprised 1754 46-year-old individuals, members of the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort. Their profile images were digitized using 48 landmarks and semi-landmarks. The subsequent landmark coordinates were then transformed to shape coordinates through Procrustes Superimposition, and final data were reduced into Principal Components (PCs) of shape. Overjet and overbite values were measured manually, during a clinical examination. A multivariate regression model was developed to evaluate the effect of overjet and overbite on profile shape. Results: The first nine PCs described more than 90% of profile shape variation in the sample and were used as the shape variables in all subsequent analyses. Overjet predicted 21.3% of profile shape in the entire sample (η2overjet = 0.213; p < 0.001), while the effect of overbite was weaker (η2overbite = 0.138; p < 0.001). In males, the equivalent effects were 22.6% for overjet and 14% for overbite, and in females, 25.5% and 13.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Incisor occlusion has a noteworthy effect on profile shape in middle-aged adults. Its impact becomes more significant taking into consideration the large variety of genetic and environmental factors affecting soft tissue profile. View Full-Text
Keywords: overjet; overbite; occlusion; profile shape; adults; morphometrics overjet; overbite; occlusion; profile shape; adults; morphometrics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kanavakis, G.; Silvola, A.-S.; Halazonetis, D.; Lähdesmäki, R.; Pirttiniemi, P. Incisor Occlusion Affects Profile Shape Variation in Middle-Aged Adults. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 800. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040800

AMA Style

Kanavakis G, Silvola A-S, Halazonetis D, Lähdesmäki R, Pirttiniemi P. Incisor Occlusion Affects Profile Shape Variation in Middle-Aged Adults. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(4):800. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040800

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kanavakis, Georgios, Anna-Sofia Silvola, Demetrios Halazonetis, Raija Lähdesmäki, and Pertti Pirttiniemi. 2021. "Incisor Occlusion Affects Profile Shape Variation in Middle-Aged Adults" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 4: 800. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040800

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