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Updated Review and Meta-Analysis of Probiotics for the Treatment of Clinical Depression: Adjunctive vs. Stand-Alone Treatment

1
Centre for Affective Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London SE5 8AF, UK
2
National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London, London SE5 8AF, UK
3
South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, Bethlem Royal Hospital, Beckenham BR3 3BX, UK
4
Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton BN1 9PX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ursula Werneke
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040647
Received: 20 January 2021 / Revised: 1 February 2021 / Accepted: 3 February 2021 / Published: 8 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatry)
Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the use of gut microbiota-targeting interventions, such as probiotics, for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The objective of this update review was to evaluate all randomised controlled clinical trial evidence on the efficacy of probiotics for clinical depression. Cochrane guidelines for updated reviews were followed. By searching PubMed and Web of Science databases, we identified 546 new records since our previous review. A total of seven studies met selection criteria, capturing 404 people with depression. A random effects meta-analysis using treatment type (stand-alone vs. adjunctive) as subgroup was performed. The results demonstrated that probiotics are effective in reducing depressive symptoms when administered in addition to antidepressants (SMD = 0.83, 95%CI 0.49–1.17), however, they do not seem to offer significant benefits when used as stand-alone treatment (SMD = −0.02, 95%CI −0.34–0.30). Potential mechanisms of action may be via increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and decreases in C-reactive protein (CRP), although limited evidence is available at present. This review offers stronger evidence to support the clinical use of probiotics in depressed populations and provides an insight into the mode of administration more likely to yield antidepressant effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; probiotics; systematic review; meta-analysis depression; probiotics; systematic review; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nikolova, V.L.; Cleare, A.J.; Young, A.H.; Stone, J.M. Updated Review and Meta-Analysis of Probiotics for the Treatment of Clinical Depression: Adjunctive vs. Stand-Alone Treatment. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040647

AMA Style

Nikolova VL, Cleare AJ, Young AH, Stone JM. Updated Review and Meta-Analysis of Probiotics for the Treatment of Clinical Depression: Adjunctive vs. Stand-Alone Treatment. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(4):647. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040647

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nikolova, Viktoriya L.; Cleare, Anthony J.; Young, Allan H.; Stone, James M. 2021. "Updated Review and Meta-Analysis of Probiotics for the Treatment of Clinical Depression: Adjunctive vs. Stand-Alone Treatment" J. Clin. Med. 10, no. 4: 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040647

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