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Open AccessReview

Breathing Re-Education and Phenotypes of Sleep Apnea: A Review

1
Buteyko Clinic International, Loughwell, Moycullen, Co., H91 H4C1 Galway, Ireland
2
Otorhinolaryngology Department, Hospital Quironsalud Marbella, 29603 Marbella, Spain
3
Otorhinolaryngology Department, Hospital Quironsalud Campo de Gibraltar, 11379 Palmones, Spain
4
Otorhinolaryngology Department, Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28042 Madrid, Spain
5
Otorhinolaryngology Department, Hospital Sanitas la Zarzuela, 28023 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(3), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030471
Received: 28 November 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 26 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Otolaryngology)
Four phenotypes of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) have been identified. Only one of these is anatomical. As such, anatomically based treatments for OSAHS may not fully resolve the condition. Equally, compliance and uptake of gold-standard treatments is inadequate. This has led to interest in novel therapies that provide the basis for personalized treatment protocols. This review examines each of the four phenotypes of OSAHS and explores how these could be targeted using breathing re-education from three dimensions of functional breathing: biochemical, biomechanical and resonant frequency. Breathing re-education and myofunctional therapy may be helpful for patients across all four phenotypes of OSAHS. More research is urgently needed to investigate the therapeutic benefits of restoring nasal breathing and functional breathing patterns across all three dimensions in order to provide a treatment approach that is tailored to the individual patient. View Full-Text
Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea; breathing re-education; dysfunctional breathing; myofunctional therapy; phenotypes obstructive sleep apnea; breathing re-education; dysfunctional breathing; myofunctional therapy; phenotypes
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MDPI and ACS Style

McKeown, P.; O’Connor-Reina, C.; Plaza, G. Breathing Re-Education and Phenotypes of Sleep Apnea: A Review. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 471. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030471

AMA Style

McKeown P, O’Connor-Reina C, Plaza G. Breathing Re-Education and Phenotypes of Sleep Apnea: A Review. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(3):471. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030471

Chicago/Turabian Style

McKeown, Patrick; O’Connor-Reina, Carlos; Plaza, Guillermo. 2021. "Breathing Re-Education and Phenotypes of Sleep Apnea: A Review" J. Clin. Med. 10, no. 3: 471. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030471

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