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Open AccessReview

Risk Factors of Intervertebral Disc Pathology—A Point of View Formerly and Today—A Review

1
Department of Anatomical Dissection and Donation, Medical University of Lodz, 90-752 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital Research Institute, 93-338 Lodz, Poland
3
Department of Normal and Clinical Anatomy, Chair of Anatomy and Histology, Medical University of Lodz, 90-752 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(3), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030409
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 16 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
Intervertebral disc pathology is a common disorder that can be caused by genetic, mechanical, and behavioral factors; however, it is possible to slow its progression. Although environmental and behavioral factors were previously considered to be the sole causes of intervertebral disc pathologies such as disc herniation, recent studies have shown that genetic factors also play an important role. This review compares the perception of major risk factors from the last and present centuries. It also examines individual genetic and non-genetic factors acting as risk factors, as well as some approaches for preventing intervertebral disc pathologies, and compares available statistics regarding disc herniation. View Full-Text
Keywords: review; disc herniation; lumbar; cervical; thoracic; factors; prevention; statistics review; disc herniation; lumbar; cervical; thoracic; factors; prevention; statistics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zielinska, N.; Podgórski, M.; Haładaj, R.; Polguj, M.; Olewnik, Ł. Risk Factors of Intervertebral Disc Pathology—A Point of View Formerly and Today—A Review. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 409. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030409

AMA Style

Zielinska N, Podgórski M, Haładaj R, Polguj M, Olewnik Ł. Risk Factors of Intervertebral Disc Pathology—A Point of View Formerly and Today—A Review. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(3):409. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030409

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zielinska, Nicol; Podgórski, Michał; Haładaj, Robert; Polguj, Michał; Olewnik, Łukasz. 2021. "Risk Factors of Intervertebral Disc Pathology—A Point of View Formerly and Today—A Review" J. Clin. Med. 10, no. 3: 409. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030409

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