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Article

Cervical Electrical Neuromodulation Effectively Enhances Hand Motor Output in Healthy Subjects by Engaging a Use-Dependent Intervention

1
Fundación Institut Guttmann, Institut Universitari de Neurorehabilitació Adscrit a la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08916 Badalona, Spain
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Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
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Fundació Institut d’Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol, 08916 Badalona, Spain
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Departament de Biologia Cel·lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia & Insititute of Neuroscience, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, and CIBERNED, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
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Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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Pavlov Institute of Physiology, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
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Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020195
Received: 12 December 2020 / Revised: 1 January 2021 / Accepted: 5 January 2021 / Published: 7 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spinal Cord Injury and Transcutaneous Spinal Cord Stimulation)
Electrical enabling motor control (eEmc) through transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation is a non-invasive method that can modify the functional state of the sensory-motor system. We hypothesize that eEmc delivery, together with hand training, improves hand function in healthy subjects more than either intervention alone by inducing plastic changes at spinal and cortical levels. Ten voluntary participants were included in the following three interventions: (i) hand grip training, (ii) eEmc, and (iii) eEmc with hand training. Functional evaluation included the box and blocks test (BBT) and hand grip maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), spinal and cortical motor evoked potential (sMEP and cMEP), and resting motor thresholds (RMT), short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and F wave in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. eEmc combined with hand training retained MVC and increased F wave amplitude and persistency, reduced cortical RMT and facilitated cMEP amplitude. In contrast, eEmc alone only increased F wave amplitude, whereas hand training alone reduced MVC and increased cortical RMT and SICI. In conclusion, eEmc combined with hand grip training enhanced hand motor output and induced plastic changes at spinal and cortical level in healthy subjects when compared to either intervention alone. These data suggest that electrical neuromodulation changes spinal and, perhaps, supraspinal networks to a more malleable state, while a concomitant use-dependent mechanism drives these networks to a higher functional state. View Full-Text
Keywords: transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation; hand training; combined intervention; neuromodulation; cervical spinal cord transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation; hand training; combined intervention; neuromodulation; cervical spinal cord
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumru, H.; Flores, Á.; Rodríguez-Cañón, M.; Edgerton, V.R.; García, L.; Benito-Penalva, J.; Navarro, X.; Gerasimenko, Y.; García-Alías, G.; Vidal, J. Cervical Electrical Neuromodulation Effectively Enhances Hand Motor Output in Healthy Subjects by Engaging a Use-Dependent Intervention. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020195

AMA Style

Kumru H, Flores Á, Rodríguez-Cañón M, Edgerton VR, García L, Benito-Penalva J, Navarro X, Gerasimenko Y, García-Alías G, Vidal J. Cervical Electrical Neuromodulation Effectively Enhances Hand Motor Output in Healthy Subjects by Engaging a Use-Dependent Intervention. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(2):195. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020195

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumru, Hatice, África Flores, María Rodríguez-Cañón, Victor R. Edgerton, Loreto García, Jesús Benito-Penalva, Xavier Navarro, Yury Gerasimenko, Guillermo García-Alías, and Joan Vidal. 2021. "Cervical Electrical Neuromodulation Effectively Enhances Hand Motor Output in Healthy Subjects by Engaging a Use-Dependent Intervention" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 2: 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020195

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