Despite the discoveries of numerous agents including next generation proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and monoclonal antibodies, multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable disease. The field of myeloma treatment in refractory or relapsed patients after standard therapy entered a new era due to the B-cell maturation antigen (BMCA) targeted approach. BCMA is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family with high expression in mature B-lymphocytes and plasma cells. Given the understanding of BCMA mechanism of action in MM, BCMA plays a promising role as a therapeutic target. Several clinical trials are underway to evolve the current BCMA targeted treatment concept such as antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), bispecific T cell engagers (BITEs) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy. Current results of representative BCMA trials may close the gap of the unmet clinical need to further improve the outcome of heavily pretreated MM patients with the potency to change the paradigm in newly diagnosed and refractory MM. This comprehensive review will give an update on various BMCA targeted treatment modalities (ADCs, BITEs, CAR T cell therapy) and its existing results on efficacy and safety from preclinical and clinical trials.
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