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Review

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Children: Immune Function and Vaccinations

1
Hematology and Oncology, Medical Faculty, Technical University, D-01307 Dresden, Germany
2
Division of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rupert Handgretinger
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4056; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184056
Received: 29 July 2021 / Revised: 31 August 2021 / Accepted: 31 August 2021 / Published: 8 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in the Treatment of Pediatric Leukemia)
Children with CML need TKI treatment for many years, and the lack of knowledge about immune dysfunction with TKI has hindered routine immunizations. This review attempts to provide an overview of the effects of TKIs licensed for children (e.g., imatinib, dasatinib, and nilotinib) on immune function, as well as its implications on immunizations. We discuss surveillance strategies (e.g., immunoglobulin blood serum levels and hepatitis B reactivation) and immunizations. All inactivated vaccines (e.g., influenza, pneumococcal, and streptococcal) can be given during the treatment of CML in the chronic phase, although their efficacy may be lower. As shown in single cases of children and adults with CML, live vaccines (e.g., varicella, measles, mumps, rubella, and yellow fever) may be administered under defined circumstances with great precautions. We also highlight important aspects of COVID-19 in this patient population (e.g., the outcome of COVID-19 infection in adults with CML and in children with varying hemato-oncological diseases) and discuss the highly dynamic field of presently available different vaccination options. In conclusion, TKI treatment for CML causes humoral and cellular immune dysfunction, which is mild in most patients, and thus infectious complications are rare. Routine immunizations are important for health maintenance of children, but vaccinations for children with CML on TKI therapy should be carefully considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia; CML; tyrosine kinase inhibitor; immunizations; COVID-19 chronic myeloid leukemia; CML; tyrosine kinase inhibitor; immunizations; COVID-19
MDPI and ACS Style

Suttorp, M.; Webster Carrion, A.; Hijiya, N. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Children: Immune Function and Vaccinations. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 4056. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184056

AMA Style

Suttorp M, Webster Carrion A, Hijiya N. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Children: Immune Function and Vaccinations. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(18):4056. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184056

Chicago/Turabian Style

Suttorp, Meinolf, Andrea Webster Carrion, and Nobuko Hijiya. 2021. "Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in Children: Immune Function and Vaccinations" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 18: 4056. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184056

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