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Article

Psychometric Validation of the Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule Questionnaire in a Spanish Population with Diabetic Foot Ulcer

1
Lleida Institute for Biomedical Research Dr. Pifarré Foundation IRBLleida, University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 80, 25198 Lleida, Spain
2
Department of Endocrinology & Nutrition, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Sant Quintí 89, 08041 Barcelona, Spain
3
Centre for Biomedical Research on Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Diseases (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 08907 Barcelona, Spain
4
Systems Biology and Statistical Methods for Biomedical Research, IRBLleida, University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 80, 25198 Lleida, Spain
5
Diabetic Foot Unit, University Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Rovira Roure 80, 25198 Lleida, Spain
6
Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine & Public Health and History of Science, University of Alicante, Carretera de Sant Vicent del Raspeig s/n, 03080 Alicante, Spain
7
Grupo Nacional de Estudio y Asesoramiento de Úlceras por Presión (GNEAUPP) Steering Committee, 26004 Logroño, Spain
8
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Vic & Central University of Catalonia, 08500 Vic, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study.
Academic Editor: José Luis Lázaro-Martínez
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(17), 4023; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10174023
Received: 27 July 2021 / Revised: 1 September 2021 / Accepted: 2 September 2021 / Published: 6 September 2021
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) negatively affect the quality of life (QoL) of people with diabetes. The Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule (CWIS) questionnaire has been designed to measure the QoL of people with chronic foot wounds. However, no studies have been specifically designed to validate this instrument in a Spanish population. In this prospective study, a total of 141 subjects with DFU were recruited. DFU was determined by performing physical examinations. Medical records were exhaustively reviewed to collect clinical variables. The CWIS was transculturally adapted by a group of experts and a group of patients with DFU. The SF-36 and EQ-5D generic instruments were used as reference tools. The questionnaires were administered at 7 days and 4, 12, and 26 weeks after the baseline assessment by personal interview with each of the study subjects. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed using statistical methods. The content validity had an average of 3.63 (90.7% of the maximum score of 4). The internal consistency of the CWIS subscales had a standardized Cronbach’s alpha range from 0.715 to 0.797. The reproducibility was moderate with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) range from 0.606 to 0.868. Significant correlations between CWIS domains and SF-36 and EQ-5D subscales were observed, demonstrating a good criterion validity of the CWIS questionnaire (p < 0.001). However, the construct validity of the CWIS was not validated with a comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.69, a root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of 0.09, and a standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) of 0.10. The sensitivity to changes over time was optimal in the three domains (i.e., social life, well-being, and physical symptoms) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the Spanish version of the CWIS shows acceptable psychometric properties to assess the QoL of subjects with DFU, except for its construct validity. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer; type 2 diabetes; quality of life; psychometric validation; reliability; validity diabetic foot ulcer; type 2 diabetes; quality of life; psychometric validation; reliability; validity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Granado-Casas, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, D.; Martínez-Alonso, M.; Dòria, M.; Alcubierre, N.; Valls, J.; Julve, J.; Verdú-Soriano, J.; Mauricio, D. Psychometric Validation of the Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule Questionnaire in a Spanish Population with Diabetic Foot Ulcer. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 4023. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10174023

AMA Style

Granado-Casas M, Martinez-Gonzalez D, Martínez-Alonso M, Dòria M, Alcubierre N, Valls J, Julve J, Verdú-Soriano J, Mauricio D. Psychometric Validation of the Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule Questionnaire in a Spanish Population with Diabetic Foot Ulcer. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(17):4023. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10174023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Granado-Casas, Minerva, Dolores Martinez-Gonzalez, Montserrat Martínez-Alonso, Montserrat Dòria, Nuria Alcubierre, Joan Valls, Josep Julve, José Verdú-Soriano, and Didac Mauricio. 2021. "Psychometric Validation of the Cardiff Wound Impact Schedule Questionnaire in a Spanish Population with Diabetic Foot Ulcer" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 17: 4023. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10174023

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