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Article

Comparison of COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 Pneumonia in Down Syndrome

by 1,2,†, 3,4,†, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1,2, 10,11, 12, 13, 14,15, 4,16,17 and 4,18,19,*,† on behalf of the Spanish Trisomy 21 Research Society COVID-19 Taskforce
1
Adult Down Syndrome Outpatient Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, 28006 Madrid, Spain
2
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Princesa, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, 28006 Madrid, Spain
3
Research Programme on Biomedical Informatics, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
4
Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
5
Department of Psychiatry, Research Institute i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, 28041 Madrid, Spain
6
Down España Huesca, 22005 Huesca, Spain
7
Unidad de Neuropediatría, Instituto Hispalense de Pediatría, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
8
Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla-Universidad de Cantabria, 39008 Santander, Spain
9
Down España, 28043 Madrid, Spain
10
Sant Pau Memory Unit, Department of Neurology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08025 Barcelona, Spain
11
Barcelona Down Medical Center, Fundació Catalana de Síndrome de Down, 08029 Barcelona, Spain
12
Department of Epidemiology and Gangarosa Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
13
Department of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
14
Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, King’s College London, London SE5 8AF, UK
15
The London Down Syndrome (LonDownS) Consortium, London, United Kingdom and South London and the Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London SE5 8AF, UK
16
Neurosciences Research Programme, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
17
Biomedical Research Networking Center for Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
18
Center for Genomic Regulation, The Barcelona Institute for Science and Technology, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
19
Biomedical Research Networking Center for Rare Diseases (CIBERER), 08003 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Jose-Manuel Ramos-Rincon
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(16), 3748; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10163748
Received: 10 July 2021 / Revised: 2 August 2021 / Accepted: 14 August 2021 / Published: 23 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19: Special Populations and Risk Factors)
Whether the increased risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization and death observed in Down syndrome (DS) are disease specific or also occur in individuals with DS and non-COVID-19 pneumonias is unknown. This retrospective cohort study compared COVID-19 cases in persons with DS hospitalized in Spain reported to the Trisomy 21 Research Society COVID-19 survey (n = 86) with admissions for non-COVID-19 pneumonias from a retrospective clinical database of the Spanish Ministry of Health (n = 2832 patients). In-hospital mortality rates were significantly higher for COVID-19 patients (26.7% vs. 9.4%), especially among individuals over 40 and patients with obesity, dementia, and/or epilepsy. The mean length of stay of deceased patients with COVID-19 was significantly shorter than in those with non-COVID-19 pneumonias. The rate of admission to an ICU in patients with DS and COVID-19 (4.3%) was significantly lower than that reported for the general population with COVID-19. Our findings confirm that acute SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to higher mortality than non-COVID-19 pneumonias in individuals with DS, especially among adults over 40 and those with specific comorbidities. However, differences in access to respiratory support might also account for some of the heightened mortality of individuals with DS with COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: Down syndrome; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pneumonia Down syndrome; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pneumonia
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Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Real de Asua, D.; Mayer, M.A.; Ortega, M.d.C.; Borrel, J.M.; Bermejo, T.d.J.; González-Lamuño, D.; Manso, C.; Moldenhauer, F.; Carmona-Iragui, M.; Hüls, A.; Sherman, S.L.; Strydom, A.; de la Torre, R.; Dierssen, M., on behalf of the Spanish Trisomy 21 Research Society COVID-19 Taskforce. Comparison of COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 Pneumonia in Down Syndrome. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3748. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10163748

AMA Style

Real de Asua D, Mayer MA, Ortega MdC, Borrel JM, Bermejo TdJ, González-Lamuño D, Manso C, Moldenhauer F, Carmona-Iragui M, Hüls A, Sherman SL, Strydom A, de la Torre R, Dierssen M on behalf of the Spanish Trisomy 21 Research Society COVID-19 Taskforce. Comparison of COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 Pneumonia in Down Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(16):3748. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10163748

Chicago/Turabian Style

Real de Asua, Diego, Miguel A. Mayer, María del Carmen Ortega, Jose M. Borrel, Teresa de Jesús Bermejo, Domingo González-Lamuño, Coral Manso, Fernando Moldenhauer, María Carmona-Iragui, Anke Hüls, Stephanie L. Sherman, Andre Strydom, Rafael de la Torre, and Mara Dierssen on behalf of the Spanish Trisomy 21 Research Society COVID-19 Taskforce. 2021. "Comparison of COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 Pneumonia in Down Syndrome" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 16: 3748. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10163748

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