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Sleep Disorders in Pediatric Migraine: A Questionnaire-Based Study

Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, Systems Medicine Department, Tor Vergata University of Rome, 00133 Rome, Italy
Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, Sapienza University, 00185 Rome, Italy
Headache Center, Child Neurology Unit, Neuroscience Department, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy
Center for Sensory Motor Interaction, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alistair D. Nichol
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(16), 3575;
Received: 15 July 2021 / Revised: 6 August 2021 / Accepted: 12 August 2021 / Published: 14 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Migraines in Childhood: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis)
There is a high comorbidity between migraine and sleep disorders (SD), with a mutual dependence between sleep and headache. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between headache features (migraine frequency and severity, migraine equivalents, use and efficacy of treatments) and sleep in pediatric migraine. Parents of children and adolescents with migraine completed the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale for Children and Adolescents (ESS-CHAD) and answered questions about headache characteristics. The presence of SD was defined according to CSHQ score. SD were detected in 72.9% of 140 subjects, but only 5.0% already received a diagnosis. Patients with SD presented statistically significant higher headache frequency (p = 0.031) and higher prevalence of migraine equivalents (p = 0.007). A higher CSHQ total score was associated with higher frequency of severe attacks (p = 0.012) and lower acute drug efficacy (p = 0.003). Significant positive correlations of sleep onset delay, sleep duration and nightwakings subscales with migraine frequency emerged. Our findings indicate that SD are highly prevalent in pediatric migraine and frequently associated with a higher headache severity and lower response to acute therapy, but often remain underdiagnosed. Improving sleep quality could help to reduce migraine intensity and disability and vice versa. View Full-Text
Keywords: sleep; sleep disorders; headache; migraine; CSHQ sleep; sleep disorders; headache; migraine; CSHQ
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MDPI and ACS Style

Voci, A.; Bruni, O.; Ferilli, M.A.N.; Papetti, L.; Tarantino, S.; Ursitti, F.; Sforza, G.; Vigevano, F.; Mazzone, L.; Valeriani, M.; Moavero, R. Sleep Disorders in Pediatric Migraine: A Questionnaire-Based Study. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3575.

AMA Style

Voci A, Bruni O, Ferilli MAN, Papetti L, Tarantino S, Ursitti F, Sforza G, Vigevano F, Mazzone L, Valeriani M, Moavero R. Sleep Disorders in Pediatric Migraine: A Questionnaire-Based Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(16):3575.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Voci, Alessandra, Oliviero Bruni, Michela A.N. Ferilli, Laura Papetti, Samuela Tarantino, Fabiana Ursitti, Giorgia Sforza, Federico Vigevano, Luigi Mazzone, Massimiliano Valeriani, and Romina Moavero. 2021. "Sleep Disorders in Pediatric Migraine: A Questionnaire-Based Study" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 16: 3575.

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