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Review

Virtual Reality Interventions for Needle-Related Procedural Pain, Fear and Anxiety—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Descartes’ Error Student Research Association, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, 45-758 Opole, Poland
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Department of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Opole University of Technology, 45-758 Opole, Poland
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Department of Physiotherapy, Institute of Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Rzeszów, 35-310 Rzeszów, Poland
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Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Unit, Azienda ULSS 3 Serenissima, 30126 Venice, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giuseppe Riva and Daniele Di Lernia
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(15), 3248; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153248
Received: 7 June 2021 / Revised: 17 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 July 2021 / Published: 23 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Virtual Reality Therapy: Emerging Topics and Future Challenges)
Needle-related procedures are often a source of pain, anxiety and fear in young patients. This systematic review aimed to investigate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) on reducing pain, fear and anxiety in pediatric patients undergoing needle-related procedures. Pain, anxiety, fear, changes in blood pressure and heart rate as well as satisfaction were evaluated as outcomes during needle-related procedures in VR compared with standard care conditions. A meta-analysis was performed, taking into account online databases. Two authors independently conducted literature searches in December 2020. The last search was conducted in March 2021 from a total of 106 records, 7 met our inclusion criteria. One study was excluded from the meta-analysis due to insufficient data. VR was applied as a distractor during venous access. Statistically significant benefits of using VR were shown in children’s pain scores, where VR significantly decreased symptoms (n = 3204 patients, MD = −2.85; 95% CI −3.57, −2.14, for the Wong–Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale and n = 2240 patients, MD = −0.19; 95% CI −0.58, 0.20, for the Faces Pain Scale—Revised). The analysis of fear, anxiety and satisfaction scores revealed no significant differences between the conditions, as the studies were too heterogeneous to be pooled. Distraction using virtual reality may be an effective intervention for reducing pain in children undergoing needle-related medical procedures. However, further research in the implementation of VR as a distractor for children and adolescents is required, due to the limited research into this field. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual reality; VR; needle; invasive procedures; pain; anxiety; fear virtual reality; VR; needle; invasive procedures; pain; anxiety; fear
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MDPI and ACS Style

Czech, O.; Wrzeciono, A.; Rutkowska, A.; Guzik, A.; Kiper, P.; Rutkowski, S. Virtual Reality Interventions for Needle-Related Procedural Pain, Fear and Anxiety—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 3248. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153248

AMA Style

Czech O, Wrzeciono A, Rutkowska A, Guzik A, Kiper P, Rutkowski S. Virtual Reality Interventions for Needle-Related Procedural Pain, Fear and Anxiety—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(15):3248. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153248

Chicago/Turabian Style

Czech, Oliver, Adam Wrzeciono, Anna Rutkowska, Agnieszka Guzik, Paweł Kiper, and Sebastian Rutkowski. 2021. "Virtual Reality Interventions for Needle-Related Procedural Pain, Fear and Anxiety—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 15: 3248. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153248

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