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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of the Initial Fouling Layer on the Membrane Surface in a Membrane Bioreactor: Effects of Permeation Drag

1
School of Chemistry Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin 132012, China
2
School of Civil and Architecture Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin 132012, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution and co-first author.
Membranes 2019, 9(9), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9090121
Received: 4 August 2019 / Revised: 11 September 2019 / Accepted: 15 September 2019 / Published: 17 September 2019
In this study, the properties of the initial fouling layer on the membrane surface of a bioreactor were investigated under different operating modes (with or without permeate flux) to improve the understanding of the effect of permeation drag on the formation of the initial fouling layer. It was found that protein was the major component in the two types of initial fouling layers, and that the permeation drag enhanced the tryptophan protein-like substances. The attraction of the initial foulants to the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was ascribed to the high zeta potential and electron donor component (γ−) of the membrane. Thermodynamic analyses showed that the permeation drag-induced fouling layer possessed high hydrophobicity and low γ−. Due to permeation drag, a portion of the foulants overcame an energy barrier before they contacted the membrane surface, which itself possessed a higher fouling propensity. A declining trend of the cohesive strength among the foulants was found with the increasing development of both fouling layers. View Full-Text
Keywords: membrane bioreactors; extracellular polymeric substances; initial fouling layer; permeation drag; interaction energy membrane bioreactors; extracellular polymeric substances; initial fouling layer; permeation drag; interaction energy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, S.; Lu, X.; Zhang, L.; Guo, J.; Zhang, H. Characterization of the Initial Fouling Layer on the Membrane Surface in a Membrane Bioreactor: Effects of Permeation Drag. Membranes 2019, 9, 121.

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