Plenty of fresh water resources are still inaccessible for human use. Calamities such as pollution, climate change, and global warming pose serious threats to the fresh water system. Although many naturally and synthetically grown materials have been taken up to resolve these issues, there is still plenty of room for enhancements in technology and material perspectives to maximize resources and to minimize harm. Considering the challenges related to the purification of water, materials in the form of nanofiber membranes and nanomaterials have made tremendous contributions to water purification and filtration. Nanofiber membranes made of synthetic polymer nanofibers, ceramic membranes etc., metal oxides in various morphologies, and carbonaceous materials were explored in relation to waste removal from water. In this review, we have discussed a few key materials that have shown effectiveness in removing pollutants from waste water, enabling solutions to existing problems in obtaining clean drinking water.
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