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Article

Performance of PES/LSMM-OGCN Photocatalytic Membrane for Phenol Removal: Effect of OGCN Loading

1
Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia
2
Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering (FCEE), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia
3
Industrial Membrane Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
4
Chemical Engineering Department, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2018, 8(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes8030042
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
In designing a photocatalytic oxidation system, the immobilized photocatalyst technique becomes highly profitable due to its promising capability in treating organic pollutants such as phenols in wastewater. In this study, hydrophiLic surface modifying macromolecules (LSMM) modified polyethersulfone (PES) hybrid photocatalytic membranes incorporated with oxygenated graphitic carbon nitride (OGCN) was successfully developed using phase inversion technique. The effectiveness of the hybrid photocatalytic membrane was determined under different loading of OGCN photocatalyst (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 wt%). The best amount of OGCN in the casting solution was 1.0 wt% as the agglomeration did not occur considering the stability of the membrane performance and morphology. The highest flux of 264 L/m2·h was achieved by PES/LSMM-OGCN1.5wt% membrane. However, the highest flux performance was not an advantage in this situation as the flux reduced the rejection value due to open pores. The membrane with the highest photocatalytic performance was obtained at 1.0 wt% of OGCN loading with 35.78% phenol degradation after 6 h. Regardless of the lower rejection value, the performance shown by the PES/LSMM-OGCN1.0wt% membrane was still competent because of the small difference of less than 1% to that of the PES/LSMM-OGCN0wt% membrane. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the optimisation of the OGCN loading in the PES hybrid photocatalytic membrane indeed plays an important role towards enhancing the catalyst distribution, phenol degradation, and acceptable rejection above all considerations. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrophilic surface modifying macromolecules; oxygen-doped graphitic carbon nitride; photocatalytic; hybrid membrane; phenol hydrophilic surface modifying macromolecules; oxygen-doped graphitic carbon nitride; photocatalytic; hybrid membrane; phenol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salim, N.E.; Nor, N.A.M.; Jaafar, J.; Ismail, A.F.; Matsuura, T.; Qtaishat, M.R.; Othman, M.H.D.; Rahman, M.A.; Aziz, F.; Yusof, N. Performance of PES/LSMM-OGCN Photocatalytic Membrane for Phenol Removal: Effect of OGCN Loading. Membranes 2018, 8, 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes8030042

AMA Style

Salim NE, Nor NAM, Jaafar J, Ismail AF, Matsuura T, Qtaishat MR, Othman MHD, Rahman MA, Aziz F, Yusof N. Performance of PES/LSMM-OGCN Photocatalytic Membrane for Phenol Removal: Effect of OGCN Loading. Membranes. 2018; 8(3):42. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes8030042

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salim, Noor E., Nor A.M. Nor, Juhana Jaafar, Ahmad F. Ismail, Takeshi Matsuura, Mohammed R. Qtaishat, Mohd H.D. Othman, Mukhlis A. Rahman, Farhana Aziz, and Norhaniza Yusof. 2018. "Performance of PES/LSMM-OGCN Photocatalytic Membrane for Phenol Removal: Effect of OGCN Loading" Membranes 8, no. 3: 42. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes8030042

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