Next Article in Journal
Perfluorinated Compounds as Test Media for Porous Membranes
Previous Article in Journal
Membrane-Accelerated Amyloid-β Aggregation and Formation of Cross-β Sheets
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessCommunication
Membranes 2017, 7(3), 50;

The Effect of Concentration Factor on Membrane Fouling

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto ON M5S 1A4, Canada
Department of Civil Engineering, Universityof British Columbia; Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [1055 KB, uploaded 3 September 2017]   |  


Bench-scale systems are often used to evaluate pretreatment methods and operational conditions that can be applied in full-scale ultrafiltration (UF) systems. However, the membrane packing density is substantially different in bench and full-scale systems. Differences in concentration factor (CF) at the solution–membrane interface as a result of packing density may impact the mass transfer and fouling rate and the applicability of bench-scale systems. The present study compared membrane resistance when considering raw water (CF = 1) and reject water (also commonly referred to as concentrate water) (CF > 1) as feed in UF systems operated in deposition (dead-end) mode. A positive relationship was observed between the concentration of the organic matter in the solution being filtered and resistance. Bench-scale trials conducted with CF = 1 water were more representative of full-scale operation than trials conducted with elevated CFs when considering membrane resistance and permeate quality. As such, the results of this study indicate that the use of the same feed water as used at full-scale (CF = 1) is appropriate to evaluate fouling in UF systems operated in deposition mode. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrafiltration; bench-scale; membrane fouling; concentration factor ultrafiltration; bench-scale; membrane fouling; concentration factor

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lok, A.; Bérubé, P.R.; Andrews, R.C. The Effect of Concentration Factor on Membrane Fouling. Membranes 2017, 7, 50.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Membranes EISSN 2077-0375 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top