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Review

Polymers and Solvents Used in Membrane Fabrication: A Review Focusing on Sustainable Membrane Development

1
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
2
George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jonggeon Jegal
Membranes 2021, 11(5), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11050309
Received: 25 March 2021 / Revised: 15 April 2021 / Accepted: 19 April 2021 / Published: 23 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Polymeric Membranes: Science, Materials and Applications)
(1) Different methods have been applied to fabricate polymeric membranes with non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) being one of the mostly widely used. In NIPS, a solvent or solvent blend is required to dissolve a polymer or polymer blend. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethylacetamide (DMAc), dimethylformamide (DMF) and other petroleum-derived solvents are commonly used to dissolve some petroleum-based polymers. However, these components may have negative impacts on the environment and human health. Therefore, using greener and less toxic components is of great interest for increasing membrane fabrication sustainability. The chemical structure of membranes is not affected by the use of different solvents, polymers, or by the differences in fabrication scale. On the other hand, membrane pore structures and surface roughness can change due to differences in diffusion rates associated with different solvents/co-solvents diffusing into the non-solvent and with differences in evaporation time. (2) Therefore, in this review, solvents and polymers involved in the manufacturing process of membranes are proposed to be replaced by greener/less toxic alternatives. The methods and feasibility of scaling up green polymeric membrane manufacturing are also examined. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymeric membranes; bio-derived solvent; non-solvent induced phase separation; membrane fabrication; scale-up polymeric membranes; bio-derived solvent; non-solvent induced phase separation; membrane fabrication; scale-up
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dong, X.; Lu, D.; Harris, T.A.L.; Escobar, I.C. Polymers and Solvents Used in Membrane Fabrication: A Review Focusing on Sustainable Membrane Development. Membranes 2021, 11, 309. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11050309

AMA Style

Dong X, Lu D, Harris TAL, Escobar IC. Polymers and Solvents Used in Membrane Fabrication: A Review Focusing on Sustainable Membrane Development. Membranes. 2021; 11(5):309. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11050309

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dong, Xiaobo, David Lu, Tequila A. L. Harris, and Isabel C. Escobar. 2021. "Polymers and Solvents Used in Membrane Fabrication: A Review Focusing on Sustainable Membrane Development" Membranes 11, no. 5: 309. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11050309

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