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Review

Plasma Membrane Lipids: An Important Binding Site for All Lipoprotein Classes

1
School of Medical Engineering and Applied Social Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Garnisonstrasse 21, 4020 Linz, Austria
2
Center for Pathobiochemistry and Genetics, Institute for Medical Genetics, Medical University of Vienna, Währingerstrasse 10, 1090 Vienna, Austria
3
Center for Pathobiochemistry and Genetics, Institute for Medical Chemistry, Medical University of Vienna, Währingerstrasse 10, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisco Monroy
Membranes 2021, 11(11), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11110882
Received: 12 October 2021 / Revised: 12 November 2021 / Accepted: 12 November 2021 / Published: 17 November 2021
Cholesterol is one of the main constituents of plasma membranes; thus, its supply is of utmost importance. This review covers the known mechanisms of cholesterol transfer from circulating lipoprotein particles to the plasma membrane, and vice versa. To achieve homeostasis, the human body utilizes cellular de novo synthesis and extracellular transport particles for supply of cholesterol and other lipids via the blood stream. These lipoprotein particles can be classified according to their density: chylomicrons, very low, low, and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, and HDL, respectively). They deliver and receive their lipid loads, most importantly cholesterol, to and from cells by several redundant routes. Defects in one of these pathways (e.g., due to mutations in receptors) usually are not immediately fatal. Several redundant pathways, at least temporarily, compensate for the loss of one or more of them, but the defects trigger systemic diseases, such as atherosclerosis later on. Recently, intracellular membrane–membrane contact sites were shown to be involved in intracellular cholesterol transfer and the plasma membrane itself has been proposed to act as a binding site for lipoprotein-mediated cargo unloading. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-esterified cholesterol; plasma membrane; lipoprotein particles; HDL; LDL non-esterified cholesterol; plasma membrane; lipoprotein particles; HDL; LDL
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MDPI and ACS Style

Axmann, M.; Plochberger, B.; Mikula, M.; Weber, F.; Strobl, W.M.; Stangl, H. Plasma Membrane Lipids: An Important Binding Site for All Lipoprotein Classes. Membranes 2021, 11, 882. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11110882

AMA Style

Axmann M, Plochberger B, Mikula M, Weber F, Strobl WM, Stangl H. Plasma Membrane Lipids: An Important Binding Site for All Lipoprotein Classes. Membranes. 2021; 11(11):882. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11110882

Chicago/Turabian Style

Axmann, Markus, Birgit Plochberger, Mario Mikula, Florian Weber, Witta Monika Strobl, and Herbert Stangl. 2021. "Plasma Membrane Lipids: An Important Binding Site for All Lipoprotein Classes" Membranes 11, no. 11: 882. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11110882

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