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Article

Antifungal Properties of Nerolidol-Containing Liposomes in Association with Fluconazole

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Pernambuco-UFPE, Recife-PE 50670-901, Brazil
2
Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Ceará-UFC, Fortaleza-CE 60020-181, Brazil
3
Department of Biological Sciences, Regional University of Cariri-URCA, Crato-CE 63105-010, Brazil
4
Department of Biological Chemistry, Regional University of Cariri-URCA, Crato-CE 63105-010, Brazil
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Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Paraíba-UFPB, João Pessoa-PB 58051-900, Brazil
6
Gonçalo Moniz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador-BA 40296-710, Brazil
7
Departament of Antibiotics, Federal University of Pernambuco-UFPE, Recife-PE 50670-901, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2020, 10(9), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10090194
Received: 18 July 2020 / Revised: 7 August 2020 / Accepted: 17 August 2020 / Published: 20 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Membranes in Life Sciences)
(1) Background: Infections by Candida species represent a serious threat to the health of immunocompromised individuals. Evidence has indicated that nerolidol has significant antifungal properties. Nonetheless, its use is restricted due to a low water solubility and high photosensitivity. The incorporation into liposomes may represent an efficient alternative to improve the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of this compound. The present study aimed to characterize the antifungal properties of liposomal nerolidol, alone or in combination with fluconazole. Of note, this is the first study reporting the antifungal activity of liposomal nerolidol and its potentiating effect in association with fluconazole. (2) Methods: The Inhibitory Concentration 50%-IC50 and minimum fungicide concentrations (MFC) of the substances against Candida albicans (CA), Candida tropicalis (CT), and Candida krusei (CK) were established by subculture in a solid medium. To evaluate the antifungal-enhancing effect, the MFC of fluconazole was determined in the presence or absence of subinhibitory concentrations of nerolidol (free or liposomal). The analysis of fungal dimorphism was performed through optical microscopy and the characterization of liposomes was carried out considering the vesicular size, polydispersion index, and zeta medium potential, in addition to a scanning electron microscopy analysis. (3) Results: The physicochemical characterization revealed that liposomes were obtained as homogenous populations of spherical vesicles. The data obtained in the present study indicate that nerolidol acts as an antifungal agent against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, in addition to potentiating (only in the liposomal form) the effect of fluconazole. However, the compound had little inhibitory effect on fungal dimorphism. (4) Conclusions: The incorporation of nerolidol into liposomes improved its antifungal-modulating properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: nerolidol; liposomes; fluconazole; candida dimorphism; antifungal resistance inhibition nerolidol; liposomes; fluconazole; candida dimorphism; antifungal resistance inhibition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fonseca Bezerra, C.; de Alencar Júnior, J.G.; de Lima Honorato, R.; dos Santos, A.T.L.; Pereira da Silva, J.C.; Silva, T.G.d.; Leal, A.L.A.B.; de Freitas, T.S.; Vieira, T.A.T.; Esmeraldo Rocha, J.; Lima Sales, D.; Barbosa Filho, J.M.; Ribeiro de Sousa, G.; Pinheiro, A.P.; Ribeiro-Filho, J.; Coutinho, H.D.M.; Bezerra Morais-Braga, M.F.; da Silva, T.G. Antifungal Properties of Nerolidol-Containing Liposomes in Association with Fluconazole. Membranes 2020, 10, 194. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10090194

AMA Style

Fonseca Bezerra C, de Alencar Júnior JG, de Lima Honorato R, dos Santos ATL, Pereira da Silva JC, Silva TGd, Leal ALAB, de Freitas TS, Vieira TAT, Esmeraldo Rocha J, Lima Sales D, Barbosa Filho JM, Ribeiro de Sousa G, Pinheiro AP, Ribeiro-Filho J, Coutinho HDM, Bezerra Morais-Braga MF, da Silva TG. Antifungal Properties of Nerolidol-Containing Liposomes in Association with Fluconazole. Membranes. 2020; 10(9):194. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10090194

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fonseca Bezerra, Camila, José G. de Alencar Júnior, Rosilaine de Lima Honorato, Antonia T.L. dos Santos, Josefa C. Pereira da Silva, Taís G.d. Silva, Antonio L.A.B. Leal, Thiago S. de Freitas, Thiago A.T. Vieira, Janaína Esmeraldo Rocha, Débora Lima Sales, José M. Barbosa Filho, Gabriela Ribeiro de Sousa, Allyson P. Pinheiro, Jaime Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique D.M. Coutinho, Maria F. Bezerra Morais-Braga, and Teresinha G. da Silva. 2020. "Antifungal Properties of Nerolidol-Containing Liposomes in Association with Fluconazole" Membranes 10, no. 9: 194. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10090194

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