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Open AccessArticle

Behaviour of Aquaporin Forward Osmosis Flat Sheet Membranes during the Concentration of Calcium-Containing Liquids

1
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering & Digital Sciences, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
2
Environmental Science & Technology Group (ESTg), Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
3
National Laboratory Astana, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
4
Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering, School of Engineering & Digital Sciences, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
5
The Environment & Resource Efficiency Cluster (EREC), Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2020, 10(5), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10050108
Received: 18 April 2020 / Revised: 11 May 2020 / Accepted: 13 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membranes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
This study aims to examine the scaling and performance of flat sheet aquaporin FO membranes in the presence of calcium salts. Experiments showed that the application of calcium sulphate (CaSO4) resulted in an 8–78% decline in the water flux. An increase in the cross-flow velocity from 3 to 12 cm/s reduced the decline in the flux by 16%. The deposition of salt crystals on the membrane surface led to the alteration in the membrane’s intrinsic properties. Microscopy, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses confirmed measurements of the zeta potential and contact angle. The use of a three-salt mixture yielded severe scaling as compared with the application of calcium sulphate dehydrate (CaSO4 × 2H2O), i.e., a result of two different crystallisation mechanisms. We found that the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl), saturation index, cross-flow velocity, and flow regime all play an important role in the scaling of aquaporin FO flat sheet membranes. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquaporin; forward osmosis (FO); membrane; scaling; calcium aquaporin; forward osmosis (FO); membrane; scaling; calcium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Omir, A.; Satayeva, A.; Chinakulova, A.; Kamal, A.; Kim, J.; Inglezakis, V.J.; Arkhangelsky, E. Behaviour of Aquaporin Forward Osmosis Flat Sheet Membranes during the Concentration of Calcium-Containing Liquids. Membranes 2020, 10, 108.

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