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Review

Lysosomal Exocytosis: The Extracellular Role of an Intracellular Organelle

1
Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06123 Perugia, Italy
2
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, Via S. Costanzo 4, 06126 Perugia, Italy
3
Centro di Eccellenza sui Materiali Innovativi Nanostrutturati (CEMIN), University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, 06123 Perugia, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Membranes 2020, 10(12), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10120406
Received: 9 November 2020 / Revised: 1 December 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 9 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Transport and Cytoskeleton Dynamics)
Lysosomes are acidic cell compartments containing a large set of hydrolytic enzymes. These lysosomal hydrolases degrade proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids into their constituents. Materials to be degraded can reach lysosomes either from inside the cell, by autophagy, or from outside the cell, by different forms of endocytosis. In addition to their degradative functions, lysosomes are also able to extracellularly release their contents by lysosomal exocytosis. These organelles move from the perinuclear region along microtubules towards the proximity of the plasma membrane, then the lysosomal and plasma membrane fuse together via a Ca2+-dependent process. The fusion of the lysosomal membrane with plasma membrane plays an important role in plasma membrane repair, while the secretion of lysosomal content is relevant for the remodelling of extracellular matrix and release of functional substrates. Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) and age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, share as a pathological feature the accumulation of undigested material within organelles of the endolysosomal system. Recent studies suggest that lysosomal exocytosis stimulation may have beneficial effects on the accumulation of these unprocessed aggregates, leading to their extracellular elimination. However, many details of the molecular machinery required for lysosomal exocytosis are only beginning to be unravelled. Here, we are going to review the current literature on molecular mechanisms and biological functions underlying lysosomal exocytosis, to shed light on the potential of lysosomal exocytosis stimulation as a therapeutic approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: lysosomal exocytosis; lysosomes; cellular clearance; mTOR; TFEB; TRPLML1 lysosomal exocytosis; lysosomes; cellular clearance; mTOR; TFEB; TRPLML1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tancini, B.; Buratta, S.; Delo, F.; Sagini, K.; Chiaradia, E.; Pellegrino, R.M.; Emiliani, C.; Urbanelli, L. Lysosomal Exocytosis: The Extracellular Role of an Intracellular Organelle. Membranes 2020, 10, 406. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10120406

AMA Style

Tancini B, Buratta S, Delo F, Sagini K, Chiaradia E, Pellegrino RM, Emiliani C, Urbanelli L. Lysosomal Exocytosis: The Extracellular Role of an Intracellular Organelle. Membranes. 2020; 10(12):406. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10120406

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tancini, Brunella, Sandra Buratta, Federica Delo, Krizia Sagini, Elisabetta Chiaradia, Roberto M. Pellegrino, Carla Emiliani, and Lorena Urbanelli. 2020. "Lysosomal Exocytosis: The Extracellular Role of an Intracellular Organelle" Membranes 10, no. 12: 406. https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes10120406

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