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Article

Targeting Toll-Like Receptor 2: Polarization of Porcine Macrophages by a Mycoplasma-Derived Pam2cys Lipopeptide

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Department of Animal Health, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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National Reference Center of Veterinary and Comparative Oncology (CEROVEC), Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d’Aosta, Piazza Borgo Pila 39/24, 16129 Genoa, Italy
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Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
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The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking GU24 ONF, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ralph A. Tripp
Vaccines 2021, 9(7), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070692
Received: 17 May 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 18 June 2021 / Published: 23 June 2021
Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligands are attracting increasing attention as prophylactic and immunotherapeutic agents against pathogens and tumors. We previously observed that a synthetic diacylated lipopeptide based on a surface protein of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Mag-Pam2Cys) strongly activated innate immune cells, including porcine monocyte-derived macrophages (moMΦ). In this study, we utilized confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, multiplex cytokine ELISA, and RT-qPCR to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the effects of scalar doses of Mag-Pam2Cys on porcine moMΦ. We observed enhanced expression of activation markers (MHC class I, MHC class II DR, CD25), increased phagocytotic activity, and release of IL-12 and proinflammatory cytokines. Mag-Pam2Cys also upregulated the gene expression of several IFN-α subtypes, p65, NOS2, and molecules with antimicrobial activities (CD14, beta defensin 1). Overall, our data showed that Mag-Pam2Cys polarized porcine macrophages towards a proinflammatory antimicrobial phenotype. However, Mag-Pam2Cys downregulated the expression of IFN-α3, six TLRs (TLR3, -4, -5, -7, -8, -9), and did not interfere with macrophage polarization induced by the immunosuppressive IL-10, suggesting that the inflammatory activity evoked by Mag-Pam2Cys could be regulated to avoid potentially harmful consequences. We hope that our in vitro results will lay the foundation for the further evaluation of this diacylated lipopeptide as an immunopotentiator in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: pig; macrophages; TLR2 agonist; cytokines; surface markers; IFN-α subtypes; toll-like receptors; IL-10 pig; macrophages; TLR2 agonist; cytokines; surface markers; IFN-α subtypes; toll-like receptors; IL-10
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MDPI and ACS Style

Franzoni, G.; Anfossi, A.; De Ciucis, C.G.; Mecocci, S.; Carta, T.; Dei Giudici, S.; Fruscione, F.; Zinellu, S.; Vito, G.; Graham, S.P.; Oggiano, A.; Chessa, B.; Razzuoli, E. Targeting Toll-Like Receptor 2: Polarization of Porcine Macrophages by a Mycoplasma-Derived Pam2cys Lipopeptide. Vaccines 2021, 9, 692. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070692

AMA Style

Franzoni G, Anfossi A, De Ciucis CG, Mecocci S, Carta T, Dei Giudici S, Fruscione F, Zinellu S, Vito G, Graham SP, Oggiano A, Chessa B, Razzuoli E. Targeting Toll-Like Receptor 2: Polarization of Porcine Macrophages by a Mycoplasma-Derived Pam2cys Lipopeptide. Vaccines. 2021; 9(7):692. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070692

Chicago/Turabian Style

Franzoni, Giulia, Antonio Anfossi, Chiara G. De Ciucis, Samanta Mecocci, Tania Carta, Silvia Dei Giudici, Floriana Fruscione, Susanna Zinellu, Guendalina Vito, Simon P. Graham, Annalisa Oggiano, Bernardo Chessa, and Elisabetta Razzuoli. 2021. "Targeting Toll-Like Receptor 2: Polarization of Porcine Macrophages by a Mycoplasma-Derived Pam2cys Lipopeptide" Vaccines 9, no. 7: 692. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9070692

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