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Article

COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Its Associated Factors in Japan

1
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Translational Medical Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo 187-8551, Japan
2
Center for Innovative Research for Communities and Clinical Excellence (CiRC2LE), Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan
3
Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka 545-8585, Japan
4
Division of Infectious Diseases, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo 104-8560, Japan
5
Cancer Control Center, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka 541-8567, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tiziana Ramaci and Massimiliano Barattucci
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060662
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 11 June 2021 / Accepted: 14 June 2021 / Published: 17 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccination and Compliance/Hesitancy)
The vaccine confidence index in Japan is one of the lowest worldwide. This study aimed to examine the proportion of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the Japanese population using a larger sample and more robust statistical methods than previously, and to identify factors associated with vaccine hesitancy. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional Internet survey on 8–26 February 2021, and calculated the proportion and odds ratios for vaccine hesitancy. Among 23,142 responses analyzed, the proportion of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was 11.3% (10.9–11.7%). The proportion was higher among younger respondents and female respondents, and especially among younger female respondents (15.6%) compared with the lowest proportion among older male respondents (4.8%). The most cited reason for not getting vaccinated was concerns about adverse reactions in more than 70% of the respondents. The proportion of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Japan was comparable to that in previous studies overseas, and the proportion among younger respondents was more than double that among older respondents. Factors associated with the hesitancy were female sex, living alone, low socioeconomic status, and presence of severe psychological distress, especially among older respondents. Thus, adequate measures should be taken to ensure that vaccines are delivered to people with these factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; vaccine; vaccine hesitancy; Japan; longitudinal study; psychological distress; social determinants of health; socioeconomic status COVID-19; vaccine; vaccine hesitancy; Japan; longitudinal study; psychological distress; social determinants of health; socioeconomic status
MDPI and ACS Style

Okubo, R.; Yoshioka, T.; Ohfuji, S.; Matsuo, T.; Tabuchi, T. COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Its Associated Factors in Japan. Vaccines 2021, 9, 662. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060662

AMA Style

Okubo R, Yoshioka T, Ohfuji S, Matsuo T, Tabuchi T. COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Its Associated Factors in Japan. Vaccines. 2021; 9(6):662. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060662

Chicago/Turabian Style

Okubo, Ryo, Takashi Yoshioka, Satoko Ohfuji, Takahiro Matsuo, and Takahiro Tabuchi. 2021. "COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Its Associated Factors in Japan" Vaccines 9, no. 6: 662. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060662

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