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An Antigenic Thrift-Based Approach to Influenza Vaccine Design
Article

Integrated Core Proteomics, Subtractive Proteomics, and Immunoinformatics Investigation to Unveil a Potential Multi-Epitope Vaccine against Schistosomiasis

1
Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
2
Department of Health and Biological Sciences, Abasyn University, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
3
Department of Medical Biotechnology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, Saudi Arabia
5
Ministry of Education, Riyadh 11153, Saudi Arabia
6
College of Life Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this study.
Academic Editors: Rossella Cianci and Laura Franza
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060658
Received: 24 May 2021 / Revised: 13 June 2021 / Accepted: 15 June 2021 / Published: 16 June 2021
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. Infections of parasitic blood flukes, known as schistosomes, cause the disease. No vaccine is available yet and thus there is a need to design an effective vaccine against schistosomiasis. Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma haematobium are the main pathogenic species that infect humans. In this research, core proteomics was combined with a subtractive proteomics pipeline to identify suitable antigenic proteins for the construction of a multi-epitope vaccine (MEV) against human-infecting Schistosoma species. The pipeline revealed two antigenic proteins—calcium binding and mycosubtilin synthase subunit C—as promising vaccine targets. T and B cell epitopes from the targeted proteins were predicted using multiple bioinformatics and immunoinformatics databases. Seven cytotoxic T cell lymphocytes (CTL), three helper T cell lymphocytes (HTL), and four linear B cell lymphocytes (LBL) epitopes were fused with a suitable adjuvant and linkers to design a 217 amino-acid-long MEV. The vaccine was coupled with a TLR-4 agonist (RS-09; Sequence: APPHALS) adjuvant to enhance the immune responses. The designed MEV was stable, highly antigenic, and non-allergenic to human use. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area (MMGBSA) analysis were performed to study the binding affinity and molecular interactions of the MEV with human immune receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) and MHC molecules (MHC I and MHC II). The MEV expression capability was tested in an Escherichia coli (strain-K12) plasmid vector pET-28a(+). Findings of these computer assays proved the MEV as highly promising in establishing protective immunity against the pathogens; nevertheless, additional validation by in vivo and in vitro experiments is required to discuss its real immune-protective efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: schistosomiasis; Schistosoma japonicum; Schistosoma mansoni; Schistosoma haematobium; multi-epitope vaccine; MD simulation schistosomiasis; Schistosoma japonicum; Schistosoma mansoni; Schistosoma haematobium; multi-epitope vaccine; MD simulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rehman, A.; Ahmad, S.; Shahid, F.; Albutti, A.; Alwashmi, A.S.S.; Aljasir, M.A.; Alhumeed, N.; Qasim, M.; Ashfaq, U.A.; Tahir ul Qamar, M. Integrated Core Proteomics, Subtractive Proteomics, and Immunoinformatics Investigation to Unveil a Potential Multi-Epitope Vaccine against Schistosomiasis. Vaccines 2021, 9, 658. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060658

AMA Style

Rehman A, Ahmad S, Shahid F, Albutti A, Alwashmi ASS, Aljasir MA, Alhumeed N, Qasim M, Ashfaq UA, Tahir ul Qamar M. Integrated Core Proteomics, Subtractive Proteomics, and Immunoinformatics Investigation to Unveil a Potential Multi-Epitope Vaccine against Schistosomiasis. Vaccines. 2021; 9(6):658. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060658

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rehman, Abdur, Sajjad Ahmad, Farah Shahid, Aqel Albutti, Ameen S.S. Alwashmi, Mohammad A. Aljasir, Naif Alhumeed, Muhammad Qasim, Usman A. Ashfaq, and Muhammad Tahir ul Qamar. 2021. "Integrated Core Proteomics, Subtractive Proteomics, and Immunoinformatics Investigation to Unveil a Potential Multi-Epitope Vaccine against Schistosomiasis" Vaccines 9, no. 6: 658. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060658

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