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Review

The Many Faces of Innate Immunity in SARS-CoV-2 Infection

1
Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA
2
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Gisa Gerold and Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede
Vaccines 2021, 9(6), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060596
Received: 5 March 2021 / Revised: 19 May 2021 / Accepted: 1 June 2021 / Published: 4 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innate Immunity to Virus Infection)
The innate immune system is important for initial antiviral response. SARS-CoV-2 can result in overactivity or suppression of the innate immune system. A dysregulated immune response is associated with poor outcomes; with patients having significant Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte ratios (NLR) due to neutrophilia alongside lymphopenia. Elevated interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 leads to overactivity and is a prominent feature of severe COVID-19 patients. IL-6 can result in lymphopenia; where COVID-19 patients typically have significantly altered lymphocyte subsets. IL-8 attracts neutrophils; which may play a significant role in lung tissue damage with the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps leading to cytokine storm or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Several factors like pre-existing co-morbidities, genetic risks, viral pathogenicity, and therapeutic efficacy act as important modifiers of SARS-CoV-2 risks for disease through an interplay with innate host inflammatory responses. In this review, we discuss the role of the innate immune system at play with other important modifiers in SARS-CoV-2 infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; innate immunity; cytokines SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; innate immunity; cytokines
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hanan, N.; Doud, R.L., Jr.; Park, I.-W.; Jones, H.P.; Mathew, S.O. The Many Faces of Innate Immunity in SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Vaccines 2021, 9, 596. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060596

AMA Style

Hanan N, Doud RL Jr., Park I-W, Jones HP, Mathew SO. The Many Faces of Innate Immunity in SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Vaccines. 2021; 9(6):596. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060596

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hanan, Nicholas, Ronnie L. Doud Jr., In-Woo Park, Harlan P. Jones, and Stephen O. Mathew. 2021. "The Many Faces of Innate Immunity in SARS-CoV-2 Infection" Vaccines 9, no. 6: 596. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060596

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