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Delivery Routes for COVID-19 Vaccines

Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bert Devriendt
Vaccines 2021, 9(5), 524;
Received: 15 April 2021 / Revised: 12 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 19 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Mucosal Vaccines)
The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, has resulted in a pandemic with millions of deaths. To eradicate SARS-CoV-2 and prevent further infections, many vaccine candidates have been developed. These vaccines include not only traditional subunit vaccines and attenuated or inactivated viral vaccines but also nucleic acid and viral vector vaccines. In contrast to the diversity in the platform technology, the delivery of vaccines is limited to intramuscular vaccination. Although intramuscular vaccination is safe and effective, mucosal vaccination could improve the local immune responses that block the spread of pathogens. However, a lack of understanding of mucosal immunity combined with the urgent need for a COVID-19 vaccine has resulted in only intramuscular vaccinations. In this review, we summarize the history of vaccines, current progress in COVID-19 vaccine technology, and the status of intranasal COVID-19 vaccines. Future research should determine the most effective route for vaccine delivery based on the platform and determine the mechanisms that underlie the efficacy of different delivery routes. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; mucosal vaccine COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; mucosal vaccine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, J.H.; Lee, H.K. Delivery Routes for COVID-19 Vaccines. Vaccines 2021, 9, 524.

AMA Style

Park JH, Lee HK. Delivery Routes for COVID-19 Vaccines. Vaccines. 2021; 9(5):524.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Park, Jang H., and Heung K. Lee 2021. "Delivery Routes for COVID-19 Vaccines" Vaccines 9, no. 5: 524.

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