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Article

Artificial Feeding of All Consecutive Life Stages of Ixodes ricinus

1
Institute of Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany
2
Institute for Veterinary Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William C. Wilson
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040385
Received: 16 March 2021 / Revised: 8 April 2021 / Accepted: 10 April 2021 / Published: 14 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick-Vaccine and Tick-Control)
The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is an obligate hematophagous arthropod and the main vector for several zoonotic diseases. The life cycle of this three-host tick species was completed for the first time in vitro by feeding all consecutive life stages using an artificial tick feeding system (ATFS) on heparinized bovine blood supplemented with glucose, adenosine triphosphate, and gentamicin. Relevant physiological parameters were compared to ticks fed on cattle (in vivo). All in vitro feedings lasted significantly longer and the mean engorgement weight of F0 adults and F1 larvae and nymphs was significantly lower compared to ticks fed in vivo. The proportions of engorged ticks were significantly lower for in vitro fed adults and nymphs as well, but higher for in vitro fed larvae. F1-females fed on blood supplemented with vitamin B had a higher detachment proportion and engorgement weight compared to F1-females fed on blood without vitamin B, suggesting that vitamin B supplementation is essential in the artificial feeding of I. ricinus ticks previously exposed to gentamicin. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ixodes ricinus; artificial tick feeding; in vitro tick feeding; vitamin B; life cycle Ixodes ricinus; artificial tick feeding; in vitro tick feeding; vitamin B; life cycle
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MDPI and ACS Style

Militzer, N.; Bartel, A.; Clausen, P.-H.; Hoffmann-Köhler, P.; Nijhof, A.M. Artificial Feeding of All Consecutive Life Stages of Ixodes ricinus. Vaccines 2021, 9, 385. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040385

AMA Style

Militzer N, Bartel A, Clausen P-H, Hoffmann-Köhler P, Nijhof AM. Artificial Feeding of All Consecutive Life Stages of Ixodes ricinus. Vaccines. 2021; 9(4):385. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040385

Chicago/Turabian Style

Militzer, Nina, Alexander Bartel, Peter-Henning Clausen, Peggy Hoffmann-Köhler, and Ard M. Nijhof 2021. "Artificial Feeding of All Consecutive Life Stages of Ixodes ricinus" Vaccines 9, no. 4: 385. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040385

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