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Review

The COVID-19 Vaccines: Recent Development, Challenges and Prospects

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Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China
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New Materials Institute, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315042, China
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Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
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MITMECHE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
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Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Brunei, Bandar Seri Begawan BE1410, Brunei
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Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
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Key Laboratory for Carbonaceous Wastes Processing and Process Intensification Research of Zhejiang Province, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China
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Municipal Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Conversion Technologies, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Ralph A. Tripp
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040349
Received: 4 March 2021 / Revised: 21 March 2021 / Accepted: 22 March 2021 / Published: 5 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination)
The highly infectious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated with the pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to become a global pandemic. At present, the world is relying mainly on containment and hygiene-related measures, as well as repurposed drugs to control the outbreak. The development of COVID-19 vaccines is crucial for the world to return to pre-pandemic normalcy, and a collective global effort has been invested into protection against SARS-CoV-2. As of March 2021, thirteen vaccines have been approved for application whilst over 90 vaccine candidates are under clinical trials. This review focuses on the development of COVID-19 vaccines and highlights the efficacy and vaccination reactions of the authorised vaccines. The mechanisms, storage, and dosage specification of vaccine candidates at the advanced stage of development are also critically reviewed together with considerations for potential challenges. Whilst the development of a vaccine is, in general, in its infancy, current progress is promising. However, the world population will have to continue to adapt to the “new normal” and practice social distancing and hygienic measures, at least until effective vaccines are available to the general public. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccines; COVID-19; global pandemic; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2 vaccines; COVID-19; global pandemic; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yan, Y.; Pang, Y.; Lyu, Z.; Wang, R.; Wu, X.; You, C.; Zhao, H.; Manickam, S.; Lester, E.; Wu, T.; Pang, C.H. The COVID-19 Vaccines: Recent Development, Challenges and Prospects. Vaccines 2021, 9, 349. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040349

AMA Style

Yan Y, Pang Y, Lyu Z, Wang R, Wu X, You C, Zhao H, Manickam S, Lester E, Wu T, Pang CH. The COVID-19 Vaccines: Recent Development, Challenges and Prospects. Vaccines. 2021; 9(4):349. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040349

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yan, Yuxin, Yoongxin Pang, Zhuoyi Lyu, Ruiqi Wang, Xinyun Wu, Chong You, Haitao Zhao, Sivakumar Manickam, Edward Lester, Tao Wu, and Cheng H. Pang 2021. "The COVID-19 Vaccines: Recent Development, Challenges and Prospects" Vaccines 9, no. 4: 349. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040349

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