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Article

A Whole Virion Vaccine for COVID-19 Produced via a Novel Inactivation Method and Preliminary Demonstration of Efficacy in an Animal Challenge Model

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
2
Infectious Disease Research Center, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
3
Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Pekosz
Vaccines 2021, 9(4), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040340
Received: 1 March 2021 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 27 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Attenuated/Inactivated/Live and Vectored Vaccines)
The COVID-19 pandemic has generated intense interest in the rapid development and evaluation of vaccine candidates for this disease and other emerging diseases. Several novel methods for preparing vaccine candidates are currently undergoing clinical evaluation in response to the urgent need to prevent the spread of COVID-19. In many cases, these methods rely on new approaches for vaccine production and immune stimulation. We report on the use of a novel method (SolaVAX) for production of an inactivated vaccine candidate and the testing of that candidate in a hamster animal model for its ability to prevent infection upon challenge with SARS-CoV-2 virus. The studies employed in this work included an evaluation of the levels of neutralizing antibody produced post-vaccination, levels of specific antibody sub-types to RBD and spike protein that were generated, evaluation of viral shedding post-challenge, flow cytometric and single cell sequencing data on cellular fractions and histopathological evaluation of tissues post-challenge. The results from this preliminary evaluation provide insight into the immunological responses occurring as a result of vaccination with the proposed vaccine candidate and the impact that adjuvant formulations, specifically developed to promote Th1 type immune responses, have on vaccine efficacy and protection against infection following challenge with live SARS-CoV-2. This data may have utility in the development of effective vaccine candidates broadly. Furthermore, the results of this preliminary evaluation suggest that preparation of a whole virion vaccine for COVID-19 using this specific photochemical method may have potential utility in the preparation of one such vaccine candidate. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; vaccination; hamster; inactivated virus vaccine; riboflavin; UV light SARS-CoV-2; vaccination; hamster; inactivated virus vaccine; riboflavin; UV light
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ragan, I.K.; Hartson, L.M.; Dutt, T.S.; Obregon-Henao, A.; Maison, R.M.; Gordy, P.; Fox, A.; Karger, B.R.; Cross, S.T.; Kapuscinski, M.L.; Cooper, S.K.; Podell, B.K.; Stenglein, M.D.; Bowen, R.A.; Henao-Tamayo, M.; Goodrich, R.P. A Whole Virion Vaccine for COVID-19 Produced via a Novel Inactivation Method and Preliminary Demonstration of Efficacy in an Animal Challenge Model. Vaccines 2021, 9, 340. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040340

AMA Style

Ragan IK, Hartson LM, Dutt TS, Obregon-Henao A, Maison RM, Gordy P, Fox A, Karger BR, Cross ST, Kapuscinski ML, Cooper SK, Podell BK, Stenglein MD, Bowen RA, Henao-Tamayo M, Goodrich RP. A Whole Virion Vaccine for COVID-19 Produced via a Novel Inactivation Method and Preliminary Demonstration of Efficacy in an Animal Challenge Model. Vaccines. 2021; 9(4):340. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040340

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ragan, Izabela K., Lindsay M. Hartson, Taru S. Dutt, Andres Obregon-Henao, Rachel M. Maison, Paul Gordy, Amy Fox, Burton R. Karger, Shaun T. Cross, Marylee L. Kapuscinski, Sarah K. Cooper, Brendan K. Podell, Mark D. Stenglein, Richard A. Bowen, Marcela Henao-Tamayo, and Raymond P. Goodrich. 2021. "A Whole Virion Vaccine for COVID-19 Produced via a Novel Inactivation Method and Preliminary Demonstration of Efficacy in an Animal Challenge Model" Vaccines 9, no. 4: 340. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040340

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