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Phylogenomic Evidence of Reinfection and Persistence of SARS-CoV-2: First Report from Colombia

Centro de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Biotecnología-UR (CIMBIUR), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad del Rosario, 110111 Bogotá, Colombia
Grupo de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales del Ejército (GINETEJ), Laboratorio de Referencia e Investigación, Dirección de Sanidad Ejército, 110111 Bogotá, Colombia
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10001, USA
Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas IDB/Incubadora Venezolana de la Ciencia, 3001 Barquisimeto, Venezuela
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe La Torre
Vaccines 2021, 9(3), 282;
Received: 22 February 2021 / Revised: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 10 March 2021 / Published: 19 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of COVID-19)
The continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 and the emergence of novel variants have raised concerns about possible reinfection events and potential changes in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission dynamics. Utilizing Oxford Nanopore technologies, we sequenced paired samples of three patients with positive RT-PCR results in a 1–2-month window period, and subsequent phylogenetics and genetic polymorphism analysis of these genomes was performed. Herein, we report, for the first time, genomic evidence of one case of reinfection in Colombia, exhibiting different SARS-CoV-2 lineage classifications between samples (B.1 and B.1.1.269). Furthermore, we report two cases of possible viral persistence, highlighting the importance of deepening our understanding on the evolutionary intra-host traits of this virus throughout different timeframes of disease progression. These results emphasize the relevance of genomic surveillance as a tool for understanding SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics, and how this may translate effectively to future control and mitigations efforts, such as the national vaccination program. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; reinfections; genomic surveillance; Colombia SARS-CoV-2; reinfections; genomic surveillance; Colombia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramírez, J.D.; Muñoz, M.; Ballesteros, N.; Patiño, L.H.; Castañeda, S.; Rincón, C.A.; Mendez, C.; Oliveros, C.; Perez, J.; Márquez, E.K.; Ortiz, F.d.l.S.; Correa-Cárdenas, C.A.; Duque, M.C.; Paniz-Mondolfi, A. Phylogenomic Evidence of Reinfection and Persistence of SARS-CoV-2: First Report from Colombia. Vaccines 2021, 9, 282.

AMA Style

Ramírez JD, Muñoz M, Ballesteros N, Patiño LH, Castañeda S, Rincón CA, Mendez C, Oliveros C, Perez J, Márquez EK, Ortiz FdlS, Correa-Cárdenas CA, Duque MC, Paniz-Mondolfi A. Phylogenomic Evidence of Reinfection and Persistence of SARS-CoV-2: First Report from Colombia. Vaccines. 2021; 9(3):282.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramírez, Juan D., Marina Muñoz, Nathalia Ballesteros, Luz H. Patiño, Sergio Castañeda, Carlos A. Rincón, Claudia Mendez, Carolina Oliveros, Julie Perez, Elizabeth K. Márquez, Frank d.l.S. Ortiz, Camilo A. Correa-Cárdenas, Maria C. Duque, and Alberto Paniz-Mondolfi. 2021. "Phylogenomic Evidence of Reinfection and Persistence of SARS-CoV-2: First Report from Colombia" Vaccines 9, no. 3: 282.

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