Next Article in Journal
SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies: A Network Meta-Analysis across Vaccines
Previous Article in Journal
Acceptability of a COVID-19 Vaccine among the Saudi Population
Article

Primary Human Dendritic Cells and Whole-Blood Based Assays to Evaluate Immuno-Modulatory Properties of Heat-Killed Commensal Bacteria

Exploratory Science Center, MRL, Merck & Co., Inc., Cambridge, MA 02141, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Novartis Institute of Biomedical Research (NIBR), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Current address: TCR2 Therapeutics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
Academic Editor: Beyhan Sinem
Vaccines 2021, 9(3), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9030225
Received: 31 January 2021 / Revised: 22 February 2021 / Accepted: 2 March 2021 / Published: 5 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Host–Microbiota Interactions)
There is mounting evidence that the microbiome plays a critical role in training and maturation of the host immune system. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that microbiome perturbation is correlated with sub-optimal host responses to vaccines and cancer immunotherapy. As such, identifying species of commensal bacteria capable of modulating immunological outcomes is of considerable interest. Currently, the lack of reliable primary immune cell-based assays capable of differentiating immuno-modulatory properties of various commensal bacteria is a major limitation. Here, we demonstrate that primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) are capable of stratifying different strains of live and heat-killed commensal bacteria in an in vitro culture system. Specifically, heat-killed bacterial strains were able to differentially modulate co-stimulation/maturation markers CD80, CD83, and HLA-DR, as well as cytokine/chemokine signatures, such as IL-1b, MIP-1a, and TNFa in primary human MoDC. We further validated our observations using the TruCulture® (Myriad RBM, Inc., Austin, TX, USA) whole-blood ex vivo culture system. Using this ex vivo system allowed us to measure immune-altering effects of commensal bacteria in primary human whole-blood. As such, we report that both these primary in vitro and ex vivo systems are robust and enable identification, stratification, and differentiation of various commensal bacteria as potential modulators of host immunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune modulation; host–microbiome interactions; commensal bacteria; microbiome; dendritic cells; innate immunity immune modulation; host–microbiome interactions; commensal bacteria; microbiome; dendritic cells; innate immunity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Norton, J.E., Jr.; Kommineni, S.; Akrivoulis, P.; Gutierrez, D.A.; Hazuda, D.J.; Swaminathan, G. Primary Human Dendritic Cells and Whole-Blood Based Assays to Evaluate Immuno-Modulatory Properties of Heat-Killed Commensal Bacteria. Vaccines 2021, 9, 225. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9030225

AMA Style

Norton JE Jr., Kommineni S, Akrivoulis P, Gutierrez DA, Hazuda DJ, Swaminathan G. Primary Human Dendritic Cells and Whole-Blood Based Assays to Evaluate Immuno-Modulatory Properties of Heat-Killed Commensal Bacteria. Vaccines. 2021; 9(3):225. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9030225

Chicago/Turabian Style

Norton, James E., Jr., Sushma Kommineni, Patricia Akrivoulis, Dario A. Gutierrez, Daria J. Hazuda, and Gokul Swaminathan. 2021. "Primary Human Dendritic Cells and Whole-Blood Based Assays to Evaluate Immuno-Modulatory Properties of Heat-Killed Commensal Bacteria" Vaccines 9, no. 3: 225. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9030225

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop