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Review

Current Advances of Nitric Oxide in Cancer and Anticancer Therapeutics

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Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Allopathic Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Davie, FL 33328, USA
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John P Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
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Department of Urology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
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College of Arts and Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33146, USA
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College of Health Professions and Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
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The Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
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Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Sumit Agarwal
Vaccines 2021, 9(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020094
Received: 5 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 27 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapy: Advances and Future Prospects)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived, ubiquitous signaling molecule that affects numerous critical functions in the body. There are markedly conflicting findings in the literature regarding the bimodal effects of NO in carcinogenesis and tumor progression, which has important consequences for treatment. Several preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that both pro- and antitumorigenic effects of NO depend on multiple aspects, including, but not limited to, tissue of generation, the level of production, the oxidative/reductive (redox) environment in which this radical is generated, the presence or absence of NO transduction elements, and the tumor microenvironment. Generally, there are four major categories of NO-based anticancer therapies: NO donors, phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-i), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activators, and immunomodulators. Of these, NO donors are well studied, well characterized, and also the most promising. In this study, we review the current knowledge in this area, with an emphasis placed on the role of NO as an anticancer therapy and dysregulated molecular interactions during the evolution of cancer, highlighting the strategies that may aid in the targeting of cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunotherapy; nitric oxide; prostate cancer; castration; checkpoint inhibitors immunotherapy; nitric oxide; prostate cancer; castration; checkpoint inhibitors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mintz, J.; Vedenko, A.; Rosete, O.; Shah, K.; Goldstein, G.; Hare, J.M.; Ramasamy, R.; Arora, H. Current Advances of Nitric Oxide in Cancer and Anticancer Therapeutics. Vaccines 2021, 9, 94. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020094

AMA Style

Mintz J, Vedenko A, Rosete O, Shah K, Goldstein G, Hare JM, Ramasamy R, Arora H. Current Advances of Nitric Oxide in Cancer and Anticancer Therapeutics. Vaccines. 2021; 9(2):94. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020094

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mintz, Joel, Anastasia Vedenko, Omar Rosete, Khushi Shah, Gabriella Goldstein, Joshua M. Hare, Ranjith Ramasamy, and Himanshu Arora. 2021. "Current Advances of Nitric Oxide in Cancer and Anticancer Therapeutics" Vaccines 9, no. 2: 94. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020094

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