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Article

Maternal Autogenous Inactivated Virus Vaccination Boosts Immunity to PRRSV in Piglets

1
Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
2
Department of Chemistry & Life Science, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY 10996, USA
3
Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
4
Smithfield Foods, Smithfield, VA 23430, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hiep L. X. Vu
Vaccines 2021, 9(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020106
Received: 2 December 2020 / Revised: 22 January 2021 / Accepted: 26 January 2021 / Published: 31 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PRRSV Vaccinology and Immunology)
Maternal-derived immunity is a critical component for the survival and success of offspring in pigs to protect from circulating pathogens such as Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV-2). The purpose of this study is to investigate the transfer of anti-PRRSV immunity to piglets from gilts that received modified-live virus (MLV) alone (treatment (TRT) 0), or in combination with one of two autogenous inactivated vaccines (AIVs, TRT 1+2). Piglets from these gilts were challenged with the autogenous PRRSV-2 strain at two weeks of age and their adaptive immune response (IR) was evaluated until 4 weeks post inoculation (wpi). The systemic humoral and cellular IR was analyzed in the pre-farrow gilts, and in piglets, pre-inoculation, and at 2 and 4 wpi. Both AIVs partially protected the piglets with reduced lung pathology and increased weight gain; TRT 1 also lowered piglet viremia, best explained by the AIV-induced production of neutralizing antibodies in gilts and their transfer to the piglets. In piglets, pre-inoculation, the main systemic IFN-γ producers were CD21α+ B cells. From 0 to 4 wpi, the role of these B cells declined and CD4 T cells became the primary systemic IFN-γ producers. In the lungs, CD8 T cells were the primary and CD4 T cells were the secondary IFN-γ producers, including a novel subset of porcine CD8αCCR7 CD4 T cells, potentially terminally differentiated CD4 TEMRA cells. In summary, this study demonstrates that maternal AIV vaccination can improve protection of pre-weaning piglets against PRRSV-2; it shows the importance of transferring neutralizing antibodies to piglets, and it introduces two novel immune cell subsets in pigs—IFN-γ producing CD21α+ B cells and CD8αCCR7 CD4 T cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal vaccination; autogenous inactivated vaccine; transfer of immunity; humoral immune response; cell-mediated immune response; T cells; PRRSV; swine; IFN-γ producing B cells; CD4 TEMRA cells maternal vaccination; autogenous inactivated vaccine; transfer of immunity; humoral immune response; cell-mediated immune response; T cells; PRRSV; swine; IFN-γ producing B cells; CD4 TEMRA cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kick, A.R.; Wolfe, Z.C.; Amaral, A.F.; Cortes, L.M.; Almond, G.W.; Crisci, E.; Gauger, P.C.; Pittman, J.; Käser, T. Maternal Autogenous Inactivated Virus Vaccination Boosts Immunity to PRRSV in Piglets. Vaccines 2021, 9, 106. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020106

AMA Style

Kick AR, Wolfe ZC, Amaral AF, Cortes LM, Almond GW, Crisci E, Gauger PC, Pittman J, Käser T. Maternal Autogenous Inactivated Virus Vaccination Boosts Immunity to PRRSV in Piglets. Vaccines. 2021; 9(2):106. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020106

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kick, Andrew R., Zoe C. Wolfe, Amanda F. Amaral, Lizette M. Cortes, Glen W. Almond, Elisa Crisci, Phillip C. Gauger, Jeremy Pittman, and Tobias Käser. 2021. "Maternal Autogenous Inactivated Virus Vaccination Boosts Immunity to PRRSV in Piglets" Vaccines 9, no. 2: 106. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020106

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