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Review

Vaccination against Cancer or Infectious Agents during Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy

1
Emory Vaccine Center, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
2
Center for Vaccinology, University Hospitals Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
3
Center for Vaccinology, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
4
Center for Vaccinology, Department of General Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giampiero Girolomoni
Vaccines 2021, 9(12), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121396 (registering DOI)
Received: 1 October 2021 / Revised: 14 November 2021 / Accepted: 18 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has substantially increased the overall survival of cancer patients and has revolutionized the therapeutic situation in oncology. However, not all patients and cancer types respond to ICI, or become resistant over time. Combining ICIs with therapeutic cancer vaccines is a promising option as vaccination may help to overcome resistance to immunotherapies while immunotherapies may increase immune responses to the particular cancer vaccine by reinvigorating exhausted T cells. Thus, it would be possible to reprogram a response with appropriate vaccines, using a particular cancer antigen and a corresponding ICI. Target populations include currently untreatable cancer patients or those who receive treatment regimens with high risk of serious side effects. In addition, with the increased use of ICI in clinical practice, questions arise regarding safety and efficacy of administration of conventional vaccines, such as influenza or COVID-19 vaccines, during active ICI treatment. This review discusses the main principles of prophylactic and therapeutic cancer vaccines, the potential impact on combining therapeutic cancer vaccines with ICI, and briefly summarizes the current knowledge of safety and effectiveness of influenza and COVID-19 vaccines in ICI-treated patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer vaccines; COVID vaccines; preventive vaccines; therapeutic vaccines; influenza cancer vaccines; COVID vaccines; preventive vaccines; therapeutic vaccines; influenza
MDPI and ACS Style

Nasti, T.H.; Eberhardt, C.S. Vaccination against Cancer or Infectious Agents during Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1396. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121396

AMA Style

Nasti TH, Eberhardt CS. Vaccination against Cancer or Infectious Agents during Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy. Vaccines. 2021; 9(12):1396. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121396

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nasti, Tahseen H., and Christiane S. Eberhardt 2021. "Vaccination against Cancer or Infectious Agents during Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy" Vaccines 9, no. 12: 1396. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9121396

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