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Article

A Comprehensive Computer Aided Vaccine Design Approach to Propose a Multi-Epitopes Subunit Vaccine against Genus Klebsiella Using Pan-Genomics, Reverse Vaccinology, and Biophysical Techniques

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, Saudi Arabia
Academic Editors: Rossella Cianci and Laura Franza
Vaccines 2021, 9(10), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101087
Received: 27 August 2021 / Revised: 17 September 2021 / Accepted: 24 September 2021 / Published: 27 September 2021
Klebsiella is a genus of nosocomial bacterial pathogens and is placed in the most critical list of World Health Organization (WHO) for development of novel therapeutics. The pathogens of the genus are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Owing to their strong resistance profile against different classes of antibiotics and nonavailability of a licensed vaccine, urgent efforts are required to develop a novel vaccine candidate that can tackle all pathogenic species of the Klebsiella genus. The present study aims to design a broad-spectrum vaccine against all species of the Klebsiella genus with objectives to identify the core proteome of pathogen species, prioritize potential core vaccine proteins, analyze immunoinformatics of the vaccine proteins, construct a multi-epitopes vaccine, and provide its biophysical analysis. Herein, we investigated all reference species of the genus to reveal their core proteome. The core proteins were then subjected to multiple reverse vaccinology checks that are mandatory for the prioritization of potential vaccine candidates. Two proteins (TonB-dependent siderophore receptor and siderophore enterobactin receptor FepA) were found to fulfill all vaccine parameters. Both these proteins harbor several potent B-cell-derived T-cell epitopes that are antigenic, nonallergic, nontoxic, virulent, water soluble, IFN-γ producer, and efficient binder of DRB*0101 allele. The selected epitopes were modeled into a multi-epitope peptide comprising linkers and Cholera Toxin B adjuvant. For docking with innate immune and MHC receptors and afterward molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy analysis, the vaccine structure was modeled for tertiary structure and refined for structural errors. To assess the binding affinity and presentation of the designed vaccine construct, binding mode and interactions analysis were performed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation techniques. These biophysical approaches illustrated the vaccine as a good binder to the immune receptors and revealed robust interactions energies. The vaccine sequence was further translated to nucleotide sequence and cloned into an appropriate vector for expressing it at high rate in Escherichia coli K12 strain. In addition, the vaccine was illustrated to generate a good level of primary, secondary, and tertiary immune responses, proving good immunogenicity of the vaccine. Based on the reported results, the vaccine can be a good candidate to be evaluated for effectiveness in wet laboratory validation studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Klebsiella; pan-proteome; multi-epitopes vaccine; immunoinformatics; molecular dynamics simulations Klebsiella; pan-proteome; multi-epitopes vaccine; immunoinformatics; molecular dynamics simulations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Allemailem, K.S. A Comprehensive Computer Aided Vaccine Design Approach to Propose a Multi-Epitopes Subunit Vaccine against Genus Klebsiella Using Pan-Genomics, Reverse Vaccinology, and Biophysical Techniques. Vaccines 2021, 9, 1087. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101087

AMA Style

Allemailem KS. A Comprehensive Computer Aided Vaccine Design Approach to Propose a Multi-Epitopes Subunit Vaccine against Genus Klebsiella Using Pan-Genomics, Reverse Vaccinology, and Biophysical Techniques. Vaccines. 2021; 9(10):1087. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101087

Chicago/Turabian Style

Allemailem, Khaled S. 2021. "A Comprehensive Computer Aided Vaccine Design Approach to Propose a Multi-Epitopes Subunit Vaccine against Genus Klebsiella Using Pan-Genomics, Reverse Vaccinology, and Biophysical Techniques" Vaccines 9, no. 10: 1087. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9101087

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