Next Article in Journal
The Next Generation of Influenza Vaccines: Towards a Universal Solution
Next Article in Special Issue
Passive Immunization with Recombinant Antibody VLRB-PirAvp/PirBvp—Enriched Feeds against Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp
Previous Article in Journal
B and T Cell Immunity in Tissues and Across the Ages
Previous Article in Special Issue
Improvement of PR8-Derived Recombinant Clade 2.3.4.4c H5N6 Vaccine Strains by Optimization of Internal Genes and H103Y Mutation of Hemagglutinin
Article

Antibody and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses Are Correlates of Protection against Influenza Infection in Vaccinated Older Adults

1
Health Sciences North Research Institute, Sudbury, ON P3E 5J1, Canada
2
Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Sudbury, ON P3E 2C6, Canada
3
Department of Medicine (Geriatrics), Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 2E1, Canada
4
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
5
Department of Immunology, University of Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany
6
UConn Center on Aging, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010025
Received: 9 November 2020 / Revised: 21 December 2020 / Accepted: 4 January 2021 / Published: 7 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Vaccine Development and Immunotherapies)
Despite efforts to design better vaccines for older adults, the risk for serious complications of influenza remains disproportionately high. Identifying correlates of vaccine effectiveness and understanding the heterogeneity of health outcomes in older adults are key to the vaccine development pipeline. We sought correlates of protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza illness (LCII) in a 4-year randomized trial of standard versus high-dose influenza vaccination of adults 65 years and older. To this end, we quantified serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) titers and interferon-gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion by virus-challenged peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Of the 608 participants included, 26 developed either A/H3N2-(n = 17) or B-LCII (n = 9) at 10–20 weeks post-vaccination. Antibody titres for A/H3N2 at 4-weeks post-vaccination were significantly associated with protection against LCII, where every 1-standard deviation increase reduced the odds of A/H3N2-LCII by 53%. Although B-titres did not correlate with protection against B-LCII, the fold-increase in IFNγ:IL-10 ratios from pre- to 4-weeks post-vaccination was significantly associated with protection against B-LCII, where every 1-standard deviation increase reduced the odds by 71%. Our results suggest that both antibody and cell-mediated immune measures are valuable and potentially complementary correlates of protection against LCII in vaccinated older adults, although this may depend on the viral type causing infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza; vaccination; older adults; correlates of protection; antibody; cell-mediated immunity influenza; vaccination; older adults; correlates of protection; antibody; cell-mediated immunity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Verschoor, C.P.; Andrew, M.K.; Loeb, M.; Pawelec, G.; Haynes, L.; Kuchel, G.A.; McElhaney, J.E. Antibody and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses Are Correlates of Protection against Influenza Infection in Vaccinated Older Adults. Vaccines 2021, 9, 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010025

AMA Style

Verschoor CP, Andrew MK, Loeb M, Pawelec G, Haynes L, Kuchel GA, McElhaney JE. Antibody and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses Are Correlates of Protection against Influenza Infection in Vaccinated Older Adults. Vaccines. 2021; 9(1):25. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Verschoor, Chris P., Melissa K. Andrew, Mark Loeb, Graham Pawelec, Laura Haynes, George A. Kuchel, and Janet E. McElhaney 2021. "Antibody and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses Are Correlates of Protection against Influenza Infection in Vaccinated Older Adults" Vaccines 9, no. 1: 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010025

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop