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Overview of the Development, Impacts, and Challenges of Live-Attenuated Oral Rotavirus Vaccines

Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa
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Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030341
Received: 13 April 2020 / Revised: 26 May 2020 / Accepted: 26 May 2020 / Published: 27 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Attenuated/Inactivated/Live and Vectored Vaccines)
Safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness are paramount to vaccine development. Following the isolation of rotavirus particles in 1969 and its evidence as an aetiology of severe dehydrating diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide, the quest to find not only an acceptable and reliable but cost-effective vaccine has continued until now. Four live-attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines (LAORoVs) (Rotarix®, RotaTeq®, Rotavac®, and RotaSIIL®) have been developed and licensed to be used against all forms of rotavirus-associated infection. The efficacy of these vaccines is more obvious in the high-income countries (HIC) compared with the low- to middle-income countries (LMICs); however, the impact is far exceeding in the low-income countries (LICs). Despite the rotavirus vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, more than 90 countries (mostly Asia, America, and Europe) are yet to implement any of these vaccines. Implementation of these vaccines has continued to suffer a setback in these countries due to the vaccine cost, policy, discharging of strategic preventive measures, and infrastructures. This review reappraises the impacts and effectiveness of the current live-attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines from many representative countries of the globe. It examines the problems associated with the low efficacy of these vaccines and the way forward. Lastly, forefront efforts put forward to develop initial procedures for oral rotavirus vaccines were examined and re-connected to today vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: rotavirus; rotavirus vaccines; vaccine effectiveness; vaccine efficacy; gastroenteritis; diarrhoea; intussusception; hospitalisation; immune-response; seroconversion rotavirus; rotavirus vaccines; vaccine effectiveness; vaccine efficacy; gastroenteritis; diarrhoea; intussusception; hospitalisation; immune-response; seroconversion
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Folorunso, O.S.; Sebolai, O.M. Overview of the Development, Impacts, and Challenges of Live-Attenuated Oral Rotavirus Vaccines. Vaccines 2020, 8, 341.

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