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CD19+ CD24hi CD38hi Regulatory B Cells and Memory B Cells in Periodontitis: Association with Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0595, USA
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt
Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology Diagnosis and Oral Radiology, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut 71524, Egypt
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicines, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, Egypt
Doping Research Chair, Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt
Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena 83523, Egypt
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
Department of Clinical Pathology, South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University, Assiut 71524, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 340;
Received: 10 May 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 26 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B and T Cell-Mediated Immunity)
Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are unique subpopulations of B cells with immune-regulating or immune-suppressing properties and play a role in peripheral tolerance. Due to the current limitations of human Breg studies among periodontal diseases, in the present study, we tried to analyze the change in circulating Bregs, pro-inflammatory, and anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients with periodontitis. Peripheral blood from 55 patients with stage 2 periodontitis and 20 healthy controls was analyzed using flow cytometry to evaluate the frequency of CD19+CD24+CD38+ Breg cells. ELISA was used to assess the serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins (IL)-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10, IL-35, and TGF-β. Increased proportions of Breg cells were observed in patients with stage 2 periodontitis compared to controls. Serum levels of cytokines were significantly higher in patients with periodontitis compared to controls. A significant positive correlation was observed between the frequencies of Breg cells and IL35 levels, IL10 levels, and TGF-β. In conclusion, our results suggest that the increase in peripheral Breg cells and serum cytokine levels among periodontitis patients seems to be closely associated with disease progression, a possible link between periodontitis, and systemic inflammatory process. View Full-Text
Keywords: Breg; periodontitis; inflammatory; cytokines Breg; periodontitis; inflammatory; cytokines
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Hetta, H.F.; Mwafey, I.M.; Batiha, G. .-S.; Alomar, S.Y.; Mohamed, N.A.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Elkady, A.; Meshaal, A.K.; Alrefai, H.; Khodeer, D.M.; Zahran, A.M. CD19+ CD24hi CD38hi Regulatory B Cells and Memory B Cells in Periodontitis: Association with Pro-Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines. Vaccines 2020, 8, 340.

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