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Open AccessArticle

Nitric Oxide Production and Fc Receptor-Mediated Phagocytosis as Functional Readouts of Macrophage Activity upon Stimulation with Inactivated Poultry Vaccines In Vitro

1
Department of Biomolecular Health Sciences, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 1, 3584CL Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria,Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020332
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 13 June 2020 / Accepted: 17 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
Vaccine batches must pass routine quality control to confirm that their ability to induce protection against disease is consistent with batches of proven efficacy from development studies. For poultry vaccines, these tests are often performed in laboratory chickens by vaccination-challenge trials or serological assays. The aim of this study was to investigate innate immune responses against inactivated poultry vaccines and identify candidate immune parameters for in vitro quality tests as alternatives for animal-based quality tests. For this purpose, we set up assays to measure nitric oxide production and phagocytosis by the macrophage-like cell line HD11, upon stimulation with inactivated poultry vaccines for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV). In both assays, macrophages became activated after stimulation with various toll-like receptor agonists. Inactivated poultry vaccines stimulated HD11 cells to produce nitric oxide due to the presence of mineral oil adjuvant. Moreover, inactivated poultry vaccines were found to enhance Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis due to the presence of allantoic fluid in the vaccine antigen preparations. We showed that inactivated poultry vaccines stimulated nitric oxide production and Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis by chicken macrophages. Similar to antigen quantification methods, the cell-based assays described here can be used for future assessment of vaccine batch-to-batch consistency. The ability of the assays to determine the immunopotentiating properties of inactivated poultry vaccines provides an additional step in the replacement of current in vivo batch-release quality tests. View Full-Text
Keywords: chicken; inactivated vaccines; macrophages; HD11 cell line; phagocytosis; nitric oxide; CHIR-AB1; vaccine quality control chicken; inactivated vaccines; macrophages; HD11 cell line; phagocytosis; nitric oxide; CHIR-AB1; vaccine quality control
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MDPI and ACS Style

van den Biggelaar, R.H.; van Eden, W.; Rutten, V.P.; Jansen, C.A. Nitric Oxide Production and Fc Receptor-Mediated Phagocytosis as Functional Readouts of Macrophage Activity upon Stimulation with Inactivated Poultry Vaccines In Vitro. Vaccines 2020, 8, 332.

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