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Open AccessArticle

Mannose-Modified Chitosan-Nanoparticle-Based Salmonella Subunit OralVaccine-Induced Immune Response and Efficacy in a Challenge Trial in Broilers

1
Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Avenue, Wooster, OH 44691, USA
2
Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
3
Department of Poultry Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally to this work.
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020299
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 7 June 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 11 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
Controlling Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) infection in broilers is a huge challenge. In this study, our objective was to improve the efficacy of a chitosan nanoparticle (CS)-based Salmonella subunit vaccine for SE, containing immunogenic outer membrane proteins (OMP) and flagellin (FLA), called the CS(OMP+FLA) vaccine, by surface conjugating it with mannose to target dendritic cells, and comparing the immune responses and efficacy with a commercial live Salmonella vaccine in broilers. The CS(OMP+FLA)-based vaccines were administered orally at age 3 days and as a booster dose after three weeks, and the broilers were challenged with SE at 5 weeks of age. Birds were sacrificed 10 days post-challenge and it was observed that CS(OMP+FLA) vaccine surface conjugated with both mannose and FLA produced the greatest SE reduction, by over 1 log10 colony forming unit per gram of the cecal content, which was comparable to a commercial live vaccine. Immunologically, specific mucosal antibody responses were enhanced by FLA-surface-coated CS(OMP+FLA) vaccine, and mannose-bound CS(OMP+FLA) improved the cellular immune response. In addition, increased mRNA expression of Toll-like receptors and cytokine was observed in CS(OMP+FLA)-based-vaccinated birds. The commercial live vaccine failed to induce any such substantial immune response, except that they had a slightly improved T helper cell frequency. Our data suggest that FLA-coated and mannose-modified CS(OMP+FLA) vaccine induced robust innate and adaptive cell-mediated immune responses and substantially reduced the Salmonella load in the intestines of broilers. View Full-Text
Keywords: broilers; Salmonella Enteritidis; chitosan nanoparticle; mannose modification; antibody response; innate immunity; cell-mediated immunity broilers; Salmonella Enteritidis; chitosan nanoparticle; mannose modification; antibody response; innate immunity; cell-mediated immunity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, Y.; Renu, S.; Patil, V.; Schrock, J.; Feliciano-Ruiz, N.; Selvaraj, R.; Renukaradhya, G.J. Mannose-Modified Chitosan-Nanoparticle-Based Salmonella Subunit OralVaccine-Induced Immune Response and Efficacy in a Challenge Trial in Broilers. Vaccines 2020, 8, 299.

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