Rhinovirus (RV) infections are a major cause of recurrent common colds and trigger severe exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases. Major challenges for the development of vaccines for RV include the virus occurring in the form of approximately 160 different serotypes, using different receptors, and the need for preclinical models for the screening of vaccine candidates and antiviral compounds. We report the establishment and characterization of an ELISA-based assay for studying major and minor group RV–receptor interactions. This assay is based on the interaction of purified virus with plate-bound human receptor proteins, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Using RV strain-specific antibodies, we demonstrate the specific binding of a panel of major and minor RV group types including RV-A and RV-B strains to ICAM-1 and LDLR, respectively. We show that the RV–receptor interaction can be blocked with receptor-specific antibodies as well as with soluble receptors and neutralizing RV-specific antibodies. The assay is more sensitive than a cell culture-based virus neutralization test. The ELISA assay will therefore be useful for the preclinical evaluation for preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting the RV–receptor interaction, such as vaccines, antibodies, and anti-viral compounds.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited