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Open AccessArticle

ELISA-Based Assay for Studying Major and Minor Group Rhinovirus–Receptor Interactions

1
Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
2
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
3
NRC Institute of Immunology FMBA of Russia, 115478 Moscow, Russia
4
Laboratory for Immunopathology, Department of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119435 Moscow, Russia
5
Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences, 3500 Krems, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020315
Received: 12 May 2020 / Revised: 12 June 2020 / Accepted: 14 June 2020 / Published: 18 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Cross-Protective Vaccines)
Rhinovirus (RV) infections are a major cause of recurrent common colds and trigger severe exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases. Major challenges for the development of vaccines for RV include the virus occurring in the form of approximately 160 different serotypes, using different receptors, and the need for preclinical models for the screening of vaccine candidates and antiviral compounds. We report the establishment and characterization of an ELISA-based assay for studying major and minor group RV–receptor interactions. This assay is based on the interaction of purified virus with plate-bound human receptor proteins, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Using RV strain-specific antibodies, we demonstrate the specific binding of a panel of major and minor RV group types including RV-A and RV-B strains to ICAM-1 and LDLR, respectively. We show that the RV–receptor interaction can be blocked with receptor-specific antibodies as well as with soluble receptors and neutralizing RV-specific antibodies. The assay is more sensitive than a cell culture-based virus neutralization test. The ELISA assay will therefore be useful for the preclinical evaluation for preventive and therapeutic strategies targeting the RV–receptor interaction, such as vaccines, antibodies, and anti-viral compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: rhinovirus; asthma; virus receptor; virus receptor interaction assay; virus neutralization assay; intercellular adhesion molecule 1; low density lipoprotein receptor; vaccine development rhinovirus; asthma; virus receptor; virus receptor interaction assay; virus neutralization assay; intercellular adhesion molecule 1; low density lipoprotein receptor; vaccine development
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Pazderova, P.; Waltl, E.E.; Niederberger-Leppin, V.; Flicker, S.; Valenta, R.; Niespodziana, K. ELISA-Based Assay for Studying Major and Minor Group Rhinovirus–Receptor Interactions. Vaccines 2020, 8, 315.

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