Next Article in Journal
Disruption of the cpsE and endA Genes Attenuates Streptococcus pneumoniae Virulence: Towards the Development of a Live Attenuated Vaccine Candidate
Next Article in Special Issue
Sendai Virus, a Strong Inducer of Anti-Lentiviral State in Ovine Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Health Care Professionals’ Perspectives on Life-Course Immunization: A Qualitative Survey from a European Conference
Previous Article in Special Issue
Downregulation of A20 Expression Increases the Immune Response and Apoptosis and Reduces Virus Production in Cells Infected by the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Open AccessArticle

In Ovo Delivered Toll-Like Receptor 7 Ligand, Resiquimod Enhances Host Responses against Infectious Bronchitis Corona Virus (IBV) Infection

1
Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Health Research Innovation Center 2C53, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
2
Virology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, 999060 Sadat, Egypt
3
Division of Animal Health, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, 793103 Meghalay, India
4
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(2), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020186
Received: 21 March 2020 / Revised: 12 April 2020 / Accepted: 13 April 2020 / Published: 15 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Innate Immunity and Inflammation)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 ligand, resiquimod, has been studied as an adjuvant and antiviral agent against several pathogens in chicken. Yet, the effectiveness of resiquimod against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection has not been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of resiquimod delivered pre-hatch (in ovo) against IBV infection post-hatch identifying key mechanisms involved in resiquimod driven immune activation. First, we found an upregulation of interleukin (IL)-1β and interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA levels and considerable expansions of macrophage and cluster of differentiation (CD) 8α+ T cell populations in lungs of chicken as early as day one post-hatch, following pre-hatch delivery of resiquimod. Second, we observed that resiquimod was able to act as an adjuvant when resiquimod was delivered pre-hatch along with an inactivated IBV vaccine. Finally, when the resiquimod pretreated one-day-old chickens were infected with IBV, reduction in viral shedding via oral and fecal routes was observed at 3 days post- infection. Overall, this study shows that the pre-hatch delivered resiquimod increases cell-mediated immune responses in lungs with an advantage of reduction in IBV shedding. View Full-Text
Keywords: in ovo; resiquimod; avian macrophage; CD8α+ cell; infectious bronchitis virus; interleukin 1β; interferon γ in ovo; resiquimod; avian macrophage; CD8α+ cell; infectious bronchitis virus; interleukin 1β; interferon γ
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

De Silva Senapathi, U.; Aboelkhair, M.; Puro, K.; Ali, M.; Amarasinghe, A.; Abdul-Cader, M.S.; Van Marle, G.; Czub, M.; Abdul-Careem, M.F. In Ovo Delivered Toll-Like Receptor 7 Ligand, Resiquimod Enhances Host Responses against Infectious Bronchitis Corona Virus (IBV) Infection. Vaccines 2020, 8, 186.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop